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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2011 with funding from 
Brigham Young University 

From a Carving by W. S. Phillips. 


Indian Stories Indian Told 



w. s. Phillips 





All Rights Reserved. 



There are two wee tots of few summers not far from 
where I write who have listened to the tales of the 
Talking Pine with silent interest and wonderment. 
Their eyes grow big, and bigger as they listen to the 
wonderful doings of the strange characters of which I 
write, and when the story is finished they climb up in 
my lap and two tiny heads covered with curls, that 
shine like the flecks of gold among the mountain river 
sands, nestle close to me and baby arms circle round 
my neck. They snuggle close to me, awed, half believ- 
ing that it is all real, but so interested in the fairy folk 
that they want "just one more story," and I must not 
deny it. 

May their baby sweetness never grow less, and may 
their a Tah-niah-na-wis" be always ready to protect 
them on their journey through the life allotted to mor- 
tals, which is, after all, only a grown-up arrangement 
of the Talking Pine tales, that they now love to hear 
and half believe. 



To these two, then — to little Laura, the one with the 
curls of gold, and to her baby brother, little Elden— 
this volume is lovingly dedicated, with the best wishes 


The stories contained in this little volume under the 
title of "Totem Tales" are the result of careful study 
and research among various tribes of Indians of the 
Northwestern Pacific Coast. 

The Indian peculiarity of narration is kept as nearly 
as possible, consistent with an understandable transla- 
tion from the native tongue into English. 

The Indian names are all spelled phonetically, nec- 
essarily, so they should be pronounced as they are writ- 
ten — by the wounds represented. The stories constitute 
the embodiment of the Indian mytho-religious beliefs, 
and, as they are gathered from several tribes, they will 
sometimes clash as to the doings or looks of some of 
the characters, and in some cases the same character 
is mentioned by a different name, arising from the dif- 
ferent tribal languages. 

The general idea of the white people seems to be 
that Indians believe in one supreme being, or "Great 
Spirit," which corresponds to the God of our Bible. 

This is not the case at all, for their religion is a 



mixture of Tah-mah-na-wis, or magic; Skal-lal-a-toots, 
or fairies, and Too-muck, or devils, the evil spirits, 
coupled with a vast legendary lore of a purely mythical 
nature — fairy stories, in fact — of which "Totem Tales" 
constitute a part. 

They are a very superstitious people and have signs, 
charms, and incantations for everything. Magic plays 
an important part in every Indian's everyday life and 
is interwoven with his doings and those of his ances- 
tors and of the magic personages described in the 
legends, as, for example, "Spe-ow." 

Some of the stories contained in this volume were 
told to the author by the side of the campfire in the 
great forest of the far Northwest, others were obtained 
from "squaw men" who had married into the tribe and 
were familiar with the tales, others were gathered from 
men of long residence in the Northwest, who had heard 
them from the old Indian story-tellers, characters who 
are fast vanishing with civilization. 

Cold type utterly fails to reveal the interest and fas- 
cination of these w T eird and simple tales as heard from 
the lips of some old and wrinkled member of the tribe, 
a trained story-teller, while crouched by the side of a 
blaze in the open air. 

His eyes shine with interest in his own story, and he 


acts as much of it as he can, posturing, gesticulating, 
talking with his hands as much as with his mouth, and 
the musical gutturals of the Indian tongue adding 
greatly to the story value of the tale. 

The giant pines rise up and up from the circle of the 
light until they are lost in the blackness that is only 
intensified by the blaze. The shadows flit about as the 
fire flickers, and it is not long until every Indian in the 
circle of listeners imagines he can see demons and 
fairies in the nooks of every bush ancj peeping from 
behind the giant trees, and they are in precisely the 
same state of mind that children are who listen to, an 1 
believe, the frightful ghost stories told them by some 
old woman. 

It is another phase of voo-dooism, a dealing in magic 
and magic personages, and every legend has been 
called into being by the thirst of the human mind to 
know the origin of things which it does not compre- 

The legends account for the presence of mountains 
and other natural objects, the beginning, or creation, 
of animals, birds, etc., and the reason for the world 
being as it is to-day. 

At this late date it is difficult to separate the Bible 
stories told by missionaries, years ago, to the Indians, 

viii PREFACE. 

and which have since drifted into legendary lore 
twisted to fit the Indian view, and worn almost unrec- 
ognizable by many repetitions, from that part which is 
purely legendary and of Indian origin. 

This the author has endeavored to do, using time 
and patience, listening to the same story from different 
sources, until the Totem Tales embody the pure Indian 
stories which are told around the winter night story- 
fire in the lodges of the Northwest. 

With these words of explanation I launch these 
"Talking Pine" tales on the troubled sea of public opin- 
ion, with the hope that they will as greatly interest 
the young readers into whose hands they may chance 
to fall as they interested a group of little folks in one 
of our Western cities the first time I told them of 
"Spe-ow" and had to go away leaving them dancing on 
the lawn and calling, "More! more! tell us more." 

W. S. P. 


For efficient aid in procuring the material for 
"Totem Tales" I am indebted to Mr. J. A. Costello, of 
Seattle, Wash., a fellow "crank on Indians" who 
tramped the great woods in company with me and 
jotted down the notes while my pencil was busy with 
sketches. Together we drew the stories, or many of 
them, from the people we met on this trip. 

Mr. Ed. Grant, a personal friend and former resi- 
dent of the Northwest, has also given me many inside 
points on the mysterious Kloo-Kwallie dance which 
have filled out my own knowledge of this ceremony. 
His graphic recitals of the everyday habits of the Quin- 
ault tribe have also helped to a truer insight of the wild 
men, and he got his knowledge from five years' resi- 
dence with them. 

Three of the stories, namely, "The Wind Dance," 

"The Eain Song," and "Kloo-Kwallie, the Medicine 

Dance," were first printed as they appear here in the 



"Forest and Stream" of New York, and seemed to have 
had at least some interests 1 readers; in fact, their 
comments started me on tha idea of grouping these 
legends in book form. 



The Talking Pine 19 

Song of the Waters 24 

Dance of the Wind. 35 

Ka-ke-hete, the Chief of the Demons 41 

Birth of Skamson 51 

The Deeds of Yelth 60 

Wee-nat-chee, the Rainbow 68 

Cawk, the Beaver's Daughter 78 

Quaw-te-aht, the Changer 91 

The Great Waters 99 

The Crow Children 108 

Kit-si-na-o, the Stone Mother 114 

The Rain Song 124 

^Of Wah-wah-hoo, the Frog 130 

Kloo-Kwallie, the Medicine Dance 146 

About the River Falls 157 

Tale of the Demons 166 

Magic of the Evil Eye 175 

Concerning a Hunter and a Bear 189 

Doak-a-Batl, the Maker 194 

Birth of the Sun 204 

Spe-ow and the Spider 212 

Ta-ko-mah, the Mountain 223 

The Bear Mother 241 

Yelth and the Butterfly 242 

Klale Tah-mah-na-wis 257 

Reading of the Totem Pole -. 269 

Carving of the Medicine Rattle 280 

Skamson, the Thunderer 285 

The Sing-Gamble 294 

The Tah-mah-na-wis of S'doaks 302 



The Story Teller Frontispiece. 

A Sloping Beach for the Canoes to Come Against 20 

Where the Children May Wade 21 

The Talking Pine 22 

T'solo on the Lake 22 

T'solo and the Talking Pine 25 

Wee-wye-kee 26 

Al-ki-cheek Shells 26 

Mowitch, the Deer 26 

Tzum-pish, the Trout ". 26 

The Rocks Try to Hold Me 27 

The Mountain Sheep 29 

The Ferns and the Pool 30 

To Them I Have Given Many Drinks 31 

Skall-lal-a-toots 37 

Moccasin 38 

The Night Bird 42 

The Path That S'noqualm, the Moon, Made 43 

Ka-ke-hete 45 

Esick 45 

Ka-ke-hete on the River 46 

The Wind Fought Ka-ke-hete a Great Battle 47 

Carving of Ka-ke-hete 49 

Skal-lal-aye Musk 49 

Too-lux 52 

Quoots-hoi 52 

Too-lux Caught a Little Whale 53 

The Whale — Haida Drawing 55 

The Little Whale— Haida Drawing , 56 



But Too-lux Cut the Whale Across the Back 57 

Yelth Made Love to. the Eagle's Daughter 61 

Yelth 63 

Ravens 63 

Yelth Flew Out of the Smoke Hole 64 

Yelth Flew with the Fire 65 

Looked Down at the Great Mountains 69 

Chee-chee-watah 70 

Chee-watum YO 

Gave Chethl a Magic Bear Skin 71 

White Water Flower 73 

Left Her Body Lying on the Floor 74 

Made Magic Medicine 75 

The Keeper of the Dead 76 

Cawk Goes with the Chief of the Sea Gulls 79 

T'sing, the Beaver 81 

A Lodge of Fish Skins 82 

Killed Him and Cut Off His Head 83 

Tipsu-Koshoo, the Seal 84 

He Cut Her Fingers Off 85 

Called to Her Totem, Hootza 88 

Hootza, the Wolf 89 

Quaw-te-aht 92 

A Little Boy Crying 93 

Ohee-chee-watah 95 

Threw His Knife at the Man 97 

Made Magic to Call the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis 101 

A Salmon Spear 103 

Made Cedar Bark Ropes 104 

G'Klobet Loaded His Biggest Canoe 105 

The Other Canoes Drifted Away 106 

They Answered with the Voices of Crows 109 

Left Them by the Canoe Ill 

And So It Was He Carved the Totem Pole 112 

The Crow 113 

She Laughed at the Child of Skoolt-ka 115 

Skoolt-ka Had Only One Child 117 

The Tribe of Hoot-za Met in Council 118 


The Tribe of Hoot-za Ran to Her Lodge 119 

The Stone Woman 122 

Sat and Smoked My Pipe 125 

Flowers and Grasses 126 

The Pines Danced the Wind Dance 127 

The Great Chief 131 

Smoked the Peace Pipe 132 

Wah-wah-hoo 133 

Carried Her into the Forest 135 

The Eagle Circled High 137 

T'set-shin, the Snake 138 

The Squirrel Watched 139 

The Tribe of the Mosquitoes 139 

The Wolves Smelled the Ground 140 

Plunged Off into the Whirlpool 141 

The Chief of the Fishes Took Him 142 

White Men Call Her the Will-o-the-Wisn 143 

Spud-tee-dock 147 

They Looked Like Black Shadows 149 

Held S'doaks with His Back Close to the Fire 151 

With These He Scourged Himself 152 

The Medicine Lodge 153 

S'doaks Fell Down 155 

Medicine Pipe 155 

A Sheet of Hurrying, Singing Water 158 

The River Falls 159 

The Demon Fought a Great Fight 161 

No Swimmer Could Live Here 163 

The Story Pipe 167 

A Big Demon Who Was the Worst One 168 

The Big Demon Made a Good Talk 169 

The Ground Cracked Open 171 

The Great River 172 

His Tail Was Broken 173 

The Evil Eye 177 

A Medicine Man 179 

A Too-muck 179 

Charm Mask ISO 


Medicine Bag 180 

A Baby of a Smiling Face 181 

Found Her with Touats at the Spring 185 

The Grouse 187 

Touats 187 

Indian Drawing on Robe 188 

Touats and Hoots Fought a Great Fight 189 

Hoots, the Bear 191 

Doak-a-batl 195 

T'shumin, the Canoe Chopper 196 

He Wove a Willow Weir 197 

A Medicine Man Dancing 199 

Enapoo, the Muskrat 200 

Left Three Big Tracks 201 

Found His Brother Occupying His Place 205 

The Moon Boy 208 

The Sun Brother 209 

Spe-ow 214 

The Moon Chief Found Him in the Trap 215 

Ki-ki, the Blue Jay 217 

Spe-ow Threw Up the Sun 218 

S'noqualm Fell to the Ground 219 

S'noqualm 220 

The Tyee Spider 221 

Spe-ow Kicked the Bluff Over 222 

The Mountain, Takomah 225 

Hia-qua 227 

He Went Away at the Coming of Night 229 

The Black Lake and the Tah-mah-na-wis Rocks 230 

The Elkhorn Pick 231 

He Started to Climb Out 232 

The Wind Threw Him Over the Rocks 233 

Smoked and Had Many Thoughts 237 

An Old Woman by the Lodge Door 239 

The Spotted Water Bird 242 

Indian Carving of the Bear Mother 243 

The Women Made Fun of Hoots 245 

Hoots Carried Away the Chiefs Daughter 247 


Killed Hoots, the Bear 249 

Hoots Knows Where Good Eating Is 253 

They Searched for Homes for the Tribes of Men 256 

Tah-mah-na-wis Wolf Masks 258 

The Klale Tah-mah-na-wis Dance 259 

Tah-mah-na-wis Masks 262 

A Skall-lal-a-toot 263 

Tah-mah-na-wis Masks 265 

The Dancers Sat Down 266 

The Thunder Bird Mask 26 r < 

The Great Totem Pole 271 

The Lodge of the Dead Man 274 

I Brought the Great Pole from the Canoe 275 

This Is the Tale 278 

The Medicine Rattle 281 

Medicine Rattle 283 

Indian Drawing of Skamson 286 

The Flight of Skamson 287 

Indian Drawings of Skamson 289, 290, 291 

War Club 291 

Where the White Men Live by the Lake 292 

Indian Drawings of Skamson 293 

Gamble Sticks 296 

Made a Motion to That Side 297 

The Fire Had Burned Low 299 

S'doaks 303 

S'doaks, Listen! 305 

Knife 307 

I Am Tah-mah-na-wis 308 

Ki-ki Told Him to Rest by the River 309 

Mink Dragging a Blue Jay 312 

AR away in the unmapped West, 
close to the edge of the last chain of 
hills that mark the rim of the land, 
is the Lake of the Mountains. The 
Lake of the Mountains is very deep 
and very blue, and it is pure and sweet, for it is cradled 
in the mountain valley, and the great peaks are 
painted in it, upside down, by the Skal-lal-a-toots, as 
they always paint things in the water. 

To know the Lake of the Mountains is to love it for 
its beauty and its songs. The opal armoured trout 
and the bronzy bass are there and the burnished gleam 
of the lusty salmon is not strange to its waters. 

All these things the Indians have known for many 
moons. They know that the blue woods which hover 
about shelter all kinds of wild things, so they have 
camped for many, many summers on the shore of the 




Lake of the Mountains, and always at the same place, 
which is on a point that puts out into the lake 
and makes a sheltered cove with a sandy beach, where 
the canoes can come against the shore, and where 
the children may wade in the water. 

Just back of the landing, on the top of the small 


ridge of land that goes on and on up to the moun- 
tains, stands a great Pine, with a goodly space under 
his spreading branches where a dance may be held 
and a council fire be built. Back of this pine are other 



pines, and back of them are others still, and others, 
until the world is blue with pines, and they cover the 
mountains even up to the deep snow. 

These are only common pines, and the great one all 
alone, the one who is so very old and tall, and whose 
arms are withered in places, and whose head is grey 


with age, is the Talking Pine, the wise one of all the 
nation of Pine Trees, and is the friend of T'solo, the 

I am called "T'solo" the wanderer, and I have been 
in many lands, but the Talking Pine has told me 



about stranger things and stranger men than I ever 
saw, and many nights I have crossed the Lake of the 
Mountains in my canoe, that I might sit 
at the foot of the great tree and hear the 

These tales I will now give to you as 
I heard them, for they are good things to 
know, and there is much of the wisdom 
of age in them, for the Talking Pine is 
very, very old, and very wise, and T'solo's 
word is the word of the pine. 

All the rest of the Pines are of the 
nation of the Talking Pine, but he is the 
Tyee, the great chief of the tribe, and is the leader in 
all the dances and songs of the woods, and the friend 
of all the wild things that live in the woods. His wis- 
dom is deep, for he is old and 
has heard many councils, and 
many councils make one very /& 
wise. Because he is so wise all 
things ask aid and good words 
of him. 

Once there were many strange T'soio on the Lake. 
beings in this country, and many strange things hap- 
pened, so now there are many stories to be told to 

The Talking Pine. 


those who do not know of these things that happened 
long ago. Now, all who love tales of the wild things, 
and of their wisdom, should come to the story fire; 
for while it burns will be talked the talk of the Pine, 
and there is wisdom and strange things to be told. 

We will light the story fire and put a coal against 
the chinoos that is in the pipe, and when the smoke 
begins to warm the mind, and the fire begins to warm 
the bones, we will hear the tales, and through these 
tales you will learn the wisdom and of the good heart 
of the Talking Pine, the Wise One, that dwells by the 
Lake of the Mountains, which are piled against the 
great water by T'set-se-la-litz, the country of the Sun- 

or T^E 


HEN the story fire was burning the 
first time I came to listen to the 
Talking Pine he told me of the Song 
of the Waters this way: 

"T'solo, the wanderer, listen to 
the tale of the waters. 

"In the country called T'set-se-la-litz, which is the 
land of the Sundown, there is a great high mountain 
which is named T'ko-mah, the one that feeds. 

"This is because the rivers that come from there 
are white like milk, and the mountain is white and 
round like the breast of a woman, and the people of 
the mountain give it this name because a woman feeds 
her children from her breast, as T'ko-mah feeds its 
children, which are the rivers. 

"One river that comes from T'ko-rnah is called 
D'wampsh, the crooked one that sings, and it tells 




tales of the mountains and of the woods to those who 
know its speech. 

"Now Wee-wye-kee, the grandmother, is very old, 
and is a friend of the crooked one that sings, and is 
also my friend. 

"Wee-wye-kee knows the language of D'wampsh 
and knows all his songs, and she told the songs to me, 



and now I sing them for you, T'solo. It is the song 
of the waters like this: 

"I am the wild one, the crooked one that sings, 
D'wampsh. My father is the snow and my mother is 



T'ko-mah. The heart of my father is cold, but the 
heart of my mother is warm, for it is the fire, and I 
am born. A-a-ah-na! And I am born! 

"I sing, I leap, I run — 

I,, the crooked 

one — and I am happy, for 

I know many friends. I 

know T'kope-mowitch, the 

W ee- W ye-kee. white goat, that lives by 

my mother, and to him and his brothers, the 

mountain sheep, I have given many drinks. A1 '^ien e s! k 

"I know Mowitch, the deer, and Moos-moos, the 
great elk, whose horns are like the arms of a pine. 
"I know Yelth, who is the Raven, the maker of 

Mowitch, the Deer. 

T'zum-pish, the Trout. 

the fire, and I am at war with the fire. Ah-e-e-e! I 
am always at war with the fire. 





"I love the woods, who are wise, and I love the 
ferns, who are small, and who shade my face with 
their fingers, and I love the rocks who are big, and 
strong, and hard. 

"The rocks play with me and try to hold me with 
their big, hard fingers, but they can't! They can't! 
Ha! Ha! They can't! I run, I leap, and I sing, and 


I am free! I, D'wampsh, the crooked one, I sing and 
I am free. 

"Ah-e-e-e, Wee-wye-ke, the grandmother, they can't 
stop me, for I am always going to the council of the 
great water that is by Ill-a-hee Al-ki, the land of the 
Bye and Bye. 



"Come with me, Wee-wye-ke, come in your canim, 
and I will carry you to Ill-a-hee Al-ki, and give you 
Al-ki-cheek, the shells to wear in your ears, and to 
trim moccasins with. Ah-e-e-e, Wee-wye-ke, come and 
you shall have Al-ki-cheek, plenty of it. 


"I have got the gold that my mother gives me, 
ha! ha! The yellow gold that Squintum, the white 
man, seeks! 

"Yes, I have it, plenty! plenty! plenty! But I bury 



it in my sand, lie! be! I bury it in my sand, deep 
down, and then I roar, and foam, and sing, and tbe 
Squintum cannot find tbe gold, and it is well. 

"Ab-e-e-e, Wee-wye-ke, it is well, for tbe white man, 
Squintum, is thirsty to kill when bis eyes shine with 
the yellow gold. So I hide it and sing on, and let him 

"I sing to the rushes until they sleep, and I give 
them drink for their thirsty stems. The willows, too, 
drink of my water, and it is well. 

"T'zum, the spotted trout, lives in my shadow and 
waits until his grandmother, the Chinook salmon, 
comes from the sea, the council of water, then he 
grows fat on eggs, Ab-e-e-e, Wee-wye-ke, then the can- 
nibal grows fat on eggs. 

"I know Ena, the beaver, and Kula-kula, the wild 
duck, and I know Enapoo, the muskrat, the lazy one 
that sits in the sun. I know many, many more, Wee- 
wye-ke, many more, and they are all my friends. Have 
you not heard the song of the lonesome one, Wah- 
wah-hoo, the frog? Wah-wah-hoo is my friend, too, 
and sings at night for Hah-hah, who was his wife, and 
who is dead. 

"Now, Wee-wye-ke, I must hurry, for I hear the 
song of the Skamson, tbe Thunderbird, and soon the 



rain will come, and I must dance then and carry it to 
the sea; Klook-wah, Wee-wye-ke." 

And so ended the song of the water as Ka-ki-i-sil- 
mah, the Talking Pine, spoke it a long time ago. 

OME, T'solo, the wanderer, when the 

wind is strong in the Southwest, 

and see the wind dance and hear the 

wind song of the pines." So said 

my friend, the Talking Pine, when 

we parted the last time. 

This Wise Pine, which is so old that it can remem- 
ber the coming of the first white man, had promised 
to tell me the secrets of the woods, and this was to be 
the beginning. So when the wind came from the 
Southwest I got into my canoe and journeyed across 
the Lake of the Mountains until I came to the place 
where the Wise One lives. 

The Talking Pine and all his large family and all 
their relations w T ere dancing the wind dance and 
singing the wind song when the canoe scraped on the 



The Talking Pine saw me and nodded his head, but 
did not stop dancing, for you must know that when 
the pines begin dancing they will sing and dance the 
wind dance just as long as they can get the wind to 
help them with the music. 

They love to swing and to sway with the wind that 
comes from the sea to help them sing, and you know 
the pines cannot sing alone and they always sleep 
when the wind goes away. 

I came to the foot of the Talking Pine so he could 
talk as he danced, and he told me why the pines dance 
the wind dance, and sing alwajs when the wind is in 
the Southwest. 

This the Talking Pine said about the wind dance: 

"Many, many years ago, before I was born, or my 
father, or my father's father was born, when the Avind 
was still a little boy, there were many strange and 
horrible creatures in the world, and they were always 
at war. 

"Far away to the Southwest lived an old Skall-lal- 
a-toot that the wind loved to pla t y tricks on. 

"This Skall-lal-a-toot had a daughter about the 
same age as the wind, and the wind loved the little 
one for her winning ways and pretty face, for, you 
know, they are all this way. 



"The old Skall-lal-a-toot loved his daughter very 
much, too, and hated the wind because he was always 
traveling and playing tricks, and had a bad temper. 

"When the wind got old enough to marry he went 
to this girl and wanted her to go away with him to 
his lodge. 

"She was willing, but the old Skall-lal-a-toot was 
very angry and hid his daughter. 


"Now, you know the wind can make himself very 
small and invisible, so he came in the night and took 
the Skall-lal-a-toot's daughter in his arms and started 
away across the big water to take her to his lodge. 

"Soon the old Skall-lal-a-toot missed his daughter 
and went to find the wind and get his daughter back, 
and at the same time to punish the wind for the trick 
he had played on him. 

"After a long journey he overtook the wind, and 
while the wind slept he took his daughter and then 


struck the wind so bard on the head that he was like 
a dead man for a long time. 

"Then the old Skall-lal-a-toot took his daughter and 
started for home again. 

"When the wind woke up he was pelton in his 
head — crazy, the white men call it — and could not 
remember anything, and had lost the power to change 
himself back to his visible shape again, so now you 
can only hear him sing, but can never see him. 

"After a long time the w T ind remembered 
that the Skall-lal-a-toot' s daughter was with 
him, and he thought she had been stolen, so 
he went to look for her. 

"The wind was very strong in his body, 
Moccasm. b ecauge h e was wrong in his head, and he 

traveled very fast and got very angry when he 
thought of the old Skall-lal-a-toot, and at last he over- 
took the old man with his daughter and fought him 
a great battle away out over the big water. 

"Soon the old Skall-lal-a-toot was forced to drop his 
daughter and take care of himself, and when the 
father let go of her the girl fell down into the water 
and was drowned. 

"Then the Tah-mah-na-wis took her up in the sky, 
so the wind could see her always. 


"The white men call her the Moon, but they do not 
know why her face is white like the face of a drowned 
person, or why you can always see the ghost of the 
moon in the water when you look, on a moonlight 

"That is because she was drowned in the big water, 
and now she must always stay there until the wind 
finds her, and the wind is crazy and does not know 
her face, but travels always and looks for his wife and 
sings to call her from the woods. 

"The wind thinks the pines know where his wife 
is, and he is always singing to them to tell him; then 
he gets crazy again and thinks she is with him, and 
he goes away laughing and singing. 

"The wind loves to dance and to sing, and the pines 
always help the poor fellow, and he tells them many 
things that he sees in his travels. 

"He is not always crazy, and then he moans ana 
cries for his wife, and looks everywhere, but soon he 
gets crazy again and sings and shrieks, and rushes 
along looking for the old Skall-lal-a-toot. 

"The Tah-mah-na-wis changed the wicked old Skall- 
lal-a-toot into the suu and put him in the sky, and now 
he is always running away from his daughter and 
she is always following him." 



This the Talking Pine told me as he danced the 
wind dance and sung the wind song. 

"I would sleep now, T'solo, the wanderer," said the 
Pine when the wind went away. "When there is more 
to tell you I will let you know by a message and you 
will come then, T'solo, the wanderer, and we will see 



HE canoe made a long line of 
shining water across the Lake of 
the Mountains, and Esick, the pad- 
dle, whispered to the Skall-lal-a- 
toots that live in the water, as I 
went along toward the path that Snoqualm, the moon, 
puts on the still water. 

Yon can never come up to this path because Sno- 
qaalm moves it away just as fast as the canoe travels, 
and he stops it when you stop, but he does not bring 
it nearer. 

When the canoe came against the sand that is in 
front of where the Wise One stands it made no noise 
and I thought the great Pine was sleeping, he was so 
still, but he spoke and his voice was small like the 
voice of a man talking a long ways across the water, 
or a man talking in the night when Polikely Kula- 
kula, the owl, is flying, and he said, "T'solo, the wan- 




derer, you are late to-night, and for that we can only 
have a short talk. There is a tale of Ka-ke-hete, chief 
of all the demons, that fits the night well, and we will 
have this, the tale of Ka-ke-hete." 

"That is well, Wise One, for I would know of Ka- 


ke-hete, the chief of demons, so when I hear his 
whistle I may know what to do. Talk, and say the 
tale, Wisest of Pines." 

Then the Pine began, and his voice was small and 
full of sleep. 





"A long time ago Ka-ke-hete, Chief of the Too- 
muck, was making a journey. For many days he trav- 
eled in his canoe, and he journeyed 
with the water toward the council of 
waters, and this was on a river that 
is named Samumpsh. 

"When he had traveled for as 
many days as the fingers of one hand 
and two more the wind saw him. 

"By this time he was on the great 
water and there was no land 
close, so the wind, who is al- 
ways at war with Ka-ke-hete, 
sung a war song and ran over the water. 

"Ka-ke-hete saw the wind coming and tried 
hard to reach the shore of an island, but Esick, 
the paddle, was slow, and the travel of the canoe 
was like the travel of a tired child, and so the 
wind caught Ka-ke-hete and fought him there 
in his canoe. 

"Soon Ka-ke-hete fell out of the canoe and 
had to swim, and the wind thought he was dead 
of the water and went away singing. 

"Ka-ke-hete did not die, but swam to the 
island and hid there in the woods for a long time. 




"When he saw any children playing in the sand 
down bv the water, then Ka-ke-hete ran down and car- 
ried them into the w r oods and ate them up. 

"Now, this made the people very ang^ and very 
sad, and they came together in a great council and 


/Tttfttf** ft, 


said, 'This thing in the woods must be killed, so it 
cannot eat our children/ so they went into the woods 
to hunt and kill Ka-ke-hete, but they found only an 
otter, for Ka-ke-hete had seen them coming and by 
his magic had changed his form to that of an otter, 




and so they did not kill him, for the people knew that 
an otter was not big enough to eat children. 

"When the people all went back to their lodges Ka- 
ke-hete changed himself back to his own form, and at 
night went down to the beach and stole a canoe. 
"With this canoe he paddled away from the island 
and went on his jour- 
fol^Q^Jj ney, and so he got away. 
"Now yon may hear 
his voice at night in 
A A the woods, and it is 
not the voice of Hoots, 
the brown bear, nor 
the voice of Itswoot, 
the black bear, nor the 
voice of Puss-puss, the 
cougar, nor the voice of 
Carvin he°te Ka " ke " Hootza, the wolf, but it 
sounds like all of these voices, and it sounds like the 
war song of the wind, but it is not any of these. 

"It is like the voices of the dead people who are at 

Stickeen, the land of Shadows, and it makes you cold 

on your back, and your hair lay awa}< from your head. 

"It is the voice of Ka-ke-hete, the chief of the 

demons, who calls his tribe and sings for the little 

Skal-lal-aye Mask. 



Skal Ma 1-a-toots who live everywhere and who make 
much, mischief. 

"When you hear this sound at night, then drop 
your lodge curtain and see that the great Skall-lal-aye 
mask hangs on the lodge pole over your head, so that 
Ka-ke-hete will go by and not raise the lodge curtain. 

"And this is the tale of Ka-ke-hete, the Tyee of all 

So said the Talking Pine. 

"It was a good tale, Wise One, and I will hang up 
the mask in my lodge and drop the door curtain as 
I go in. 

"I will come for more tales, and now Klook-wah." 

And then I went with the canoe across the Lake 
of the Mountains. 

BE Talking Pine nodded in friend- 
ly greeting as I tied my canoe to the 
end of a log and let it drift on the 
placid water and mirror itself in the 
Lake of the Mountains, while I 
climbed up to sit at the foot of the Wise One and 
listen to the tales he had to tell. 

"To-night we will know of the birth of the Thunder- 
bird, Skamson, who makes the rain, T'solo," said the 
Pine as I lighted my pipe and waited at his feet, 
watching the moon rise. 

"It is good," I answered; "I would know of the Thun- 
derbird, Wise One, and how he came to be. Tell the 
tale and I will listen." 

"Then it is this way," said the Talking Pine, and 
at once he began to tell the tale. 





"Too-lux was the South wind, who always traveled 
North in the summer time. 

"Quoots-hoi was an old witch who lived by a great 
river and whose home was by the rocks. 

"When Too-lux came to the river he 
was tired and hungry from his travel, aud 
when he saw Quoots-hoi he said, 'Give me 
something to eat, for I am olo, hungry.' 

" 'I have nothing ready, but here is a 
net; go and catch a *little whale and bring 
it to me so I can cook it, and you shall 
have some fish for your hunger/ said 

"So Too-lux took the net, which was made of the 
small roots of the hemlock tree, and waded into the 
great water. There he soon caught a little 
whale and brought it to the lodge of 
Quoots-hoi and prepared to clean it to 
make it ready to eat. 

"Then Quoots-hoi handed a knife, made 
from a sharp sea-shell, to Too-lux and 
said, 'Do not cut the little whale across Quoots-hoi. 
his back, but split him along his backbone and dress 

him that wav.' 






"Now, Too-lux was very hungry and was in such a 
hurry for his dinner that he did not pay much atten- 
tion to what Quoots-hoi, the witch, had told him, but 
cut the little whale across the back. 

"When he did this the whale immediately changed 
and became a great bird, which flew away and lit on 

ruif>i n 


a high mountain. There it built a nest and laid many 
eggs. Quoots-hoi and Too-lux followed the bird and 
found the nest. They destroyed all the eggs but one, 
and that one hatched before they could get arouud to 
break it, and so the Thunderbird was born. 



"Before Quoots-hoi and Too-lux could capture and 
kill it the bird flew away and went to another high 
mountain and covered itself up with clouds, so no 
one can find it now, and it is the maker of the rain, 
and of Too-tah, the thunder. 


"Some other time I will tell you what the Thunder- 
bird can do, and where he lives and what he eats, but 
not now, T'solo, the wanderer, for the moon is high and 
it is time to sleep. Come again and listen, for there 
are more tales to tell." 



















And so I journeyed to my lodge again and left the 
Wise One to sleep out his sleep, for he is old, and those 
who are old must sleep much and are not like young 
folks, whose eyes are bright and whose feet are like 
the feet of a deer. 

i or ^ 

ELL me, Wise One, of the deeds of 
Yeltb, the Raven," I said to the Talk- 
ing Pine, as I came and sat by his 

"Yon would know of the deeds of 
the Black One, Yelth, the Raven?" he asked. 

"Yes, Wise One, the story of the tire; tell me of this, 
and how it came about." . . 

"Listen then, T'solo, the wanderer, for it is well 
to know of the fire, and how it came. 

"Yelth, the Raven, is a good spirit and has done 
many deeds, so many that I cannot tell you of all of 
them. Nobody knows of all that Yelth has done, for 
he has lived a long, long time, and is always doing 

"But of the fire: I know the tale and will tell of 

it and of the sun, the moon, the stars, and of the fresh 





water, which Yelth, the Raven, got from the eagle and 
gave to men. 
"It is like this: 

"When times were young and people did not have 
all the things in the world that they do now, the great 

Gray Eagle was a mighty 
chief and was keeper of 
the fire, the sun, the 
moon, the stars, and the 
fresh water. 

a IIe was the enemy of 
men and guarded all these things w T ell that men did 
not get them for their own use. 

"Now, Yelth was a friend to men and was 
always doing good deeds for them, and for this 
reason he w^as hated by the Eagle, who was his uncle. 

"The Eagle had a pretty daugh- 
ter, and Yelth made love to the 
girl, and so got into the lodge of 
his uncle, the Eagle, and looked 
around to see what the Eagle had that would be 2food 
for the use of men. 

"At this time the Raven was not a black bird, as 
he is now, but w T as a fine young man, who was 
changed by the magic of his enemies into the shape 

>V JJ.V7 VV tXO XJ.AO UlU-lLi 





of a bird, and he was very wise himself in all the ways 
of magic, and so the Eagle's daughter loved him. 

"Soon Yelth found the sun, the moon, the stars, 
the fire, and the fresh water, and he deserted his 
sweetheart and stole all these things from his uncle, 


and, putting on his magic bird skin, flew out of the 
smoke hole in the lodge with them. 

"As soon as he got outside he hung the sun up in 
the air, and putting on his magic bird skin again, 
soon reached an island in the great water, where he 
rested until it was night. 





"Now, when the darkness came he could not see how 
to travel, so he scattered the stars about in the sky 
and hung up the moon, so he could have light, and 
left them there for the use of men. 

"When he found he could see to travel by this light 
he took the fresh water and the lire and started for 
his own lodge. Soon he dropped the water and it fell to 
the ground, and now there are lakes and rivers in the 
land, and men have good water to drink. 

"With the fire he journeyed on, and soon all the 
stick burned up, and the smoke made his body black, 
and his bill burned until he had to drop the fire, and it 
fell in the rocks and in the trees, and it is still there, 
for you may get fire by rubbing two sticks together, 
and you may get it by striking two rocks together, too. 

"And so that is the coining of fire. When you come 
again, T'solo, the wanderer, I will tell you more of the 
deeds of Yelth, but not now, so Klook-wah." 

I IE sun was painting the Western 
sky with bright patches of gold and 
rose when I lighted my pipe and got 
into my canoe to journey across the 
Lake of the Mountains and hold a 
talk with my friend, the Talking Pine. 

The pisht, pisht, of the eddy loving paddle made 
sweet sounds and sung soft lullabys as I journeyed 
across the silent lake and looked down at the great 
mountains that are in the bottom, like silent gray 
ghosts, and in time I came to the beach of yellow 
sand which is just where the Wise One lives. 

"Kla-how-ya, T'solo, the one who wanders," said 
the Pine, "it is a good night, a night of many colors 
in the sky, and to-morrow the rain will come, and then 
all the pines will sing the rain song and dance the 
rain dance, for the wise one, Skamson, the great Thun- 




derbird, has sent me word, and lie lias said that Wee- 
natchee, the Kainbow, will come with the rain to- 

"Know you, T'solo, wanderer, know you the tale of 


"No, Wise One," I answered, "I do not know the 
tale of Wee-natchee, the Rainbow. Know you the 
tale, Ka-ki-i-sil-mah, Wisest of Pines?" 




"Yea, I know the tale. Light your pipe again, 
T\solo, for it is burned out and the smell of blue 

(liinoos smoke is a good smell 
when tales are to be told. 
Make your pipe full of Chinoos, 
T'solo, and when the white 
man's fire stick makes the bowl 
red with fire and the smoke 
comes well, I will tell you the 
-W tale, T'solo." 

"It is well, and I listen, 
Wise One." 

"Then it is this way," answered the Talking Pine. 
"Siah-ah-ah Ahn-n-n-cutty, so 
long ago that I have no memory, 
T'solo, the wanderer, there was a 
great chief who was the head of 
many tribes and a wise man. 

"This man's name was Chee- 
wat-um, the one who stays at '/ 

"He was wise in the ways of 
men and wise in the ways of the 
Tah-mah-na-wis, and of magic, and so many people 
came to see him for his wisdom. Now, Ohee-wat-um, 






the wise one, had a daughter who was fair aud fresh 
as the first white water flower of the lake that blos- 
soms in the frog moon, and was wise in the ways of 
men, for she was born with teeth, and as you know, 
Tsolo, she had lived before, else she would have been 

born the same as other children — 

without teeth. 

"This girl was loved more than all 

else by her father and was named by 

him the Humming Bird, Chee-ehee- 


"Now, among others who came to 
white water Flower, council with Che-wat-um Avas a young- 
warrior, who was Chethl, the Lightning, because of 
his quick ways. 

"When Chethl saw Chee-chee-watah he said in his 
own thoughts, 'This girl shall be my wife, for she has 
a fair face and much wisdom/ and so he set about to 
make love to her. 

"Chee-chee-watah, the Humming Bird, soon loved 
Chethl, the Lightning, and they planned to marry and 
live in a lodge of their own, and all was settled but 
the word of Che-wat-um, her father. When he found 
that his daughter loved the Lightning he was very 
angry and put Chee-chee-watah in the woman's lodge 



for many days, and sent Chethl away and told him 
never to see Ckee-chee-watah again. 

"Now, this made the young folks very sad, for they 
loved each other very dearly, and for many days 
Chethl planned to see the Humming Bird, but failed. 


"Then he thought of the ways of magic, and so went 
alone in the forest and called his great Tah-mah-na- 
wis to him and said, 'I, Chethl, the Lightning, am much 
in love with Chee-chee-watah, the daughter of Che- 
wat-um, the wise one who stays at home. Chee-chee- 



watah is kept in the woman's lodge and I cannot see 
her. Give me a charm that will make all eyes but the 
eyes of the Humming Bird blind when I walk by them, 
so I may go to her.' 

"And so the Tah-mah-na-wis gave to Chethl a magic 


bear skin and said, 'Put on this bear robe and go to 
your sweetheart, for no e} r e may see you when you are 
covered with it. But be careful that you look toward 
the rising sun and toward the setting sun when you 
put it on, or else it will lose its magic and be as other 
bear robes, and of no use.' 



"Then Chethl put on the robe and went to the 
woman's lodge, and no one saw him, and he said to 
Chee-chee-watah, the Humming Bird, 'Come under the 
robe and you shall go out of the sight of men, and we 
will go far away and live in a lodge of our own.' 

"So Chee-chee-watah got under the robe and they 
went far away into the forest and 
built a lodge and lived there together 
until one day Chetl put on the magic 
robe, but forgot to look toward the 
rising sun and toward the setting 
sun, and then a strange thing hap- 
pened. When the bear robe fell over 
the shoulder of Chetl there was a 
great noise and a strong wind, and 
Ka-ke-hete, the chief of the demons, 
came and took Chetl away and left 
Chee-chee-watah alone in the forest. 

"When she waited for many days 
and Chetl did not come back Chee- 
chee-watah was very sad and mourned all the time 
for her lost husband. 

"Soon there came a time when Cole-sick, the keeper 
of the dead, came and found Chee-chee-watah sitting 
there mourning, and he took her away with him and 

The Keeper of the Dead 
—Indian Carving. 


left only her body lying on the floor of the lodge, and 
there she was found by her father, Che-wat-um, who 
had been looking for her for many moons. 

"When he found she was dead he was very sad, 
and made magic medicine and so called her back from 
the country of the shadows and made her to be the 
rainbow, Wee-natchee, and put her in the sky, so he 
could see her always, because she was dead and could 
no longer be his daughter, Chee-chee-watah. 

"And so this is how Wee-natchee, the Rainbow, 
came in the sky. 

"Now, T'solo, the wanderer, go in your canoe to 
your lodge across the Lake of the Mountains, and 
fasten the door curtain, for Ka-ke-hete, the chief of the 
demons, is blowing his whistle and coming fast over 
the woods and chasing the wind, so it is well for you 
to be by the lodge fire when they pass by, that you 
may not see his wicked face." 

And so I crossed over the Lake and sat in my lodge 
while Ka-ke-hete walked across the Lake of the Moun- 
tains and made the water white while it sung a war 
song with the wind. 


NOW yon of Cawk, the daughter 
of T'sing, the Beaver, T'solo?" 
asked the Talking Pine when next 
I sat at his feet and watched the 
little waves that always wash the 
sand and sing there in the Lake of the Mountains,, 

"No, Wise One, I do not know of Cawk, the daugh- 
ter of T'sing, and I would hear the tale." 

"Listen then, T'solo, the wanderer, for it is a tale 
that is good to know, for it shows how one can be too 
proud, and in this lose the good and get only the bad 
of living, and that is not a good thing to do. 
"This is the tale, wanderer: 

"Many, many summers ago there lived a chief who 
was T'sing, the Beaver, all alone on a great island in 
the big w r ater. 

"Now, T'sing, the Beaver, had a daughter who was 




Cawk, the one with the pretty face. Iler mother had 
long been dead, and she lived there alone with her 
father, and so grew up to be a pretty girl, Cawk. 

"All the young men of the country around came to 
make love to Cawk, the pretty one, but to all she was 


the same, and was too proud to be any but the wife 
of a great chief, and so she waited. 

"One time, when the ice melted and the water 
was unlocked, a great white bird who was T'kope 
Kula-Kula, the sea gull, came to the island where the 
Beaver, Tsing, lived, and saw Cawk, the pretty one. 



" 'Now the sea gull fell in love with Cawk and made 
love to her with his song this way: 

"'Come with me! Come into the land of the birds 
where there is never hunger. 

" 'Where my lodge is made of the most beautiful 
woods, and where I, T'kope Kula-kula, am chief. 


" 'Your fire shall always burn with wood. 

" 'You shall rest on soft bear robes. 

"'My people, the galls, shall bring your food. 

" 'Their feathers shall make your robes. 

" 'Your basket shall always be filled with meat/ 



"So Cawk listened to the song and soon she loved 
T'kope Kula-kula, the sea gull, and went away with 
him across the big water, and lived in his lodge. 

"Only too soon poor Cawk, the pretty one, found 
that she had made a mistake when she sent all the 
young men away and went with T'kope Kula-kula, 


the chief of the sea gulls, for his lodge was not built 
of beautiful woods, but only of the skins of fishes, and 
was full of holes where Colesnass, the winter, came 
in and froze her fingers. 

"Instead of soft bear robes, her bed was only the 


skins of Tipsu Ko-shoo, the hair seal, the water pig, 
and she could not rest. 

"And there was no wood for the lodge fire, and no 
meat in the basket, and the only food she had was the 
nasty fish that the tribe of the gulls threw to her, and 
that was not much of anything, for the gulls are always 
hungry and eat all they can get themselves. 

"So Cawk, the daughter of T'sing, the Beaver, grew 
sad in her mind and longed for her old home with her 
father, and in her sadness she sung her song this way: 

" 'T'sing, oh, my father, listen : 

" 'If you knew how sad I am you would come to me. 
" 'We would cross the big waters 

in your canim. 

" 'The tribe of T'kope Kula-kula 
do not look on me with good 
hearts, for I am a stranger. Tipsu Kosnoo, the seal. 

" 'Colesnass blows his breath on me and Ka-ke-hete 
whistles by my bed. 
" 'I have no food. 
" 'I am sick and am very sad. 

" 'Come, father, with your canim and take me home.' 
"Now, when the summer came again T'sing got in 
his canoe and crossed the big waters to go on a visit 
to his daughter. 




"She was very glad to see him and begged him to 
take her home again, and told him how she had been 
treated by her husband, T'kope Kula-kula. 

"When T'sing, the Beaver, heard of this he was very 
angry and waited until Tkope Kula-kula came back 
to the lodge and then T'sing killed him and cut off 
his head. 

"Then he took Cawk, who was no longer the pretty 
one, because her eyes were red with tears, with him in 
his canoe, and went swiftly across the big water on 
his way home again. 

"Soon the tribe of T'kope Kula-kula came home and 
found their chief dead, and his wife gone, and they 
all began to cry and they still cry to this day for their 

"All the tribe of gulls went in search of the killer 
of their chief, and soon they saw the canoe of T'sing, 
the Beaver, journeying across the big water. 

"Then they stirred up a heavy storm, and made the 
water rise up in great waves that tried to sink the 
canoe of T'sing, the Beaver. 

"When the storm came T'sing did a very wrong 
thing, for he took Cawk, his daughter, and threw her 
out in the big water for the birds to take revenge on. 

"But Cawk caught the edge of the canoe, and held 



on, until her father, to save himself, crueWy cut her 
fingers off at the first joint. Now, the ends of her 
fingers fell into the water, and the first one was 
changed into the whale, and the finger nail became 
the whalebone and so the whale came into the world. 


"The second finger became a Grampus, or little 
whale, and the others swam away in the shape of Sal- 
mon, Herring, Codfish, Seals, and Hairseals, and so 
these things all came into the big water and are still 


"When Cawk fell into the big water the gulls 
thought she was dead of the water and went away, and 
so the waves calmed down, and her father took poor 
Caw T k back into the canoe, and took her home, but she 
had no fingers and was in much pain. 

"Now when she sat by her father's fire, and looked 
at her hands, all the love went out of her mind and 
Ka-ka-hete, the chief of the demons, came into it, be- 
cause her father had been so 
cruel to her. 

"So she counseled with Ka-ka- 
hete and he told her to make 
medicine to hurt her father. 

"Then Cawk called to her To- 
tem spirit, who was Hoot-za, the Hootza, the woif. 
wolf, and to him she said: 'My father, T'sing, the 
Beaver, has cut off my fingers. Bring all the tribe of 
Hoot-za and let them gnaw off the hands and feet of 
my father while he sleeps, so that Ka-ka-hete will go 
out of my mind, and I may sleep.' 

"And so the tribe of Hootza came and gnawed off the 
hands and feet of T'sing, the Beaver, while he slept, 
and when he aw T oke he w r as very angry and talked 
with a bad tongue to his Tah-mah-na-wis, because he 
let Hootza eat his hands and feet. 



"When he did this, the Sah-hale Tah-mah-na-wis 
was very angry, and made the ground open up in a 
great hole, and down went T'sing, the Beaver, Cawk, 
the pretty one, and all the tribe of Hootza, the wolf, 
except one, and from him came all the wolves in the 
world, and they are all bad, because of the bad deeds 
of Hootza." 

This was the tale of Cawk, the daughter of T'sing, 
the Beaver, that the Wise One, Ka-ki-i-sil-mah, the 
Talking Pine, told me by the Lake of the Mountains. 

O you know of Mowitch, the deer, and 
how he came, T'solo, the wanderer?" 
asked the Talking Pine as the moon, 
Snoqualm, made a silver path 
across the Lake of the Mountains, 
from the black pines on the other side, clear up to the 
beach of yellow sand, where my canoe made a black 
spot on the water close by my foot. 

"I listen for the tale, Wise One," I answered, and 
then watched Snoqualm, the moon, climb up the sky 
while the Talking Pine told me this tale: 

"Mowitch was once a man, but is now a deer, be- 
cause of the magic of Quaw-te-aht, who did many 
other deeds, too, and it was this way," said the Pine. 

"A long time ago Quaw-te-aht, the changer, came 

across the land and traveled along through the woods. 

"In his travels he came to a place where the rain 




was falling and stood by one of the tribe of the pines 
to wait until the rain went away. 

"While he stood there he saw a man who was stand- 
ing still and throwing his 
hands about in the air over 
his head very fast, and try- 
ing to keep the rain from 
falling on him in this way. 

"When Quaw-te-aht saw 
this he thought this man 
was very foolish, and he said 
to him, Why do you do 

" That is the way to keep 
the rain from falling on 
you/ said the man. 

" 'You are foolish, and for 

your foolish ways, I will 

change your form,' said 

Quaw-te-aht, the changer. 

Quaw-te-aht. 'Go and be always in the 

form of Chee-chee-watah, the Humming Bird, and 

throw your arms fast for the rest of your life.' 

"And so by the magic of Quaw-te-aht the man was 
changed into the form of the little bird that makes a 




noise with his wings, Chee-chee-watah, and now you 
will always see him when the rain has just gone, or 
when the tears of Snoqualm, the moon, fall at the com- 
ing of Polikely, the night, all because of his foolish 
ways when he was a man. 

"Now, since this was done, no Indian is afraid of- the 

rain, and does not care if 
it falls on him, because he 
remembers the Humming 
Bird, Chee-chee-watah. 

"After the rain w^ent 
away, Quaw-te-aht went 
on through the woods and 
came to a little boy who 
was sent by his mother to 
pick a basket of Shot-o-lil- 
ies, the Huckleberry, and 
this little boy was crying, 
'Hoo! Hoo! Hoo!' because he was not a brave boy and 
was thinking of the Brown Bear, Hoots, who lived in 
the woods. 

"So Quaw-te-aht said, 'Why do you cry?' 
" 'Because I am afraid of Hoots, the Brown Bear, 
and think he will come and eat me/ answered the boy. 
" 'Now because you are not a brave boy, and because 



you cry always, I will change you from a boy to the 
form of a bird,' said Quaw-te-aht, the changer, and so 
by his magic the boy was changed into a dove, and is 
now in the woods and always crying, 'Hoo! Hoo! Hoo!' 
just as he did when he was a boy, and very much 
afraid of Hoots, the bear. 

"So, if boys do not want to be changed into other 
things, it is best for them to be brave and not cry 
about Hoots, the bear, and then they will soon grow 
to be men, and be wise. 

"Quaw-te-aht journeyed along and soon came to an- 
other man who was making sharp the edge of a stone 
knife, and to this man he said, 'Why do you make the 
knife sharp?' 

" 'To cut meat,' answered the man. 

"'That is double talk, you make sharp the edge of 
Opitsah, the knife, that you may kiW me, for I know 
your mind and can see your thoughts. Give me the 
knife,' said Quaw-te-aht, and started towards the man. 

"Now r the man knew that Quaw-te-aht saw his 
thoughts and so he was very much frightened and 
started to run away. 

"In his great haste he dropped his knife, and then 
Quaw-te-aht picked it up and threw it at the man, and 
it struck him in the heel. 



"When the knife stuck ill his heel the man began to 
jump about and ran into the woods. 

"Quaw-te-aht, to punish him for his evil thoughts, 
said, 'Go and be Mowitch, the deer, and jump about 
in the woods always,' and so by the great magic of 
Quaw-te-aht, the changer, this wicked man became 

r - * 

A Wi '//, 



the first deer, and still jumps about in the woods with 
the knife in his heel, for you may see the handle of 
it sticking out just above the foot of the deer, where 
he has another toe, and his feet are split in two be- 
cause the knife split the foot of the evil man. 


"And so this is the tale of Mowitch, the deer, and 
how he came." 

When the tale was done, Snoqualm, the moon, had 
climbed above the tops of the black pines across the 
Lake of the Mountains, and was painting all the water 
with light. 

Then I got in the canoe and paddled away and the 
voice of the Lake sung under the canoe as it went 
along, and far away in the shadow of the trees I heard 
the hunting cry of Puss-puss, the great yellow cougar, 
who looked with his great green eyes for Mowitch, the 
deer, for his meat, and from a dead pine, Polikely Kula- 
kula, the big owl, sung for his wife to come, and so I 
journeyed home to my lodge hearing these sounds. 

WANDERER, you have seen the 
mark of the waters on the mountain 
tops many times in your journeys, 
but do you know how the waters got 
there?" asked the Talking Pine, when 
I had sat down by his feet, and the smell of the Chinoos 
was in the air. 

I tl) ought heavy thoughts on this, but I could not 
think how the waters had left their marks on the top 
of the hills, vet I knew thev had, for I had seen the 
sign in many lands, so I said, "No, Wise One, I do not 
know how the sign of the great waters came to be on 
the tops of the mountains, but it is good wisdom and 
well to know. Know you, wisest of Pines, how the 
waters came on the hills?" 

"Yes, I know, T'solo, the wanderer, I know how this 
sign came there. Shall I tell the tale?" 



"It is good to know of this, and I listen, Wise One. 
Speak the tale." 

"Then it was because of this: 

"A long time ago, before Yelth, the raven, w T as born, 
or before the coming of Hoots, the great brown bear, 
there were different men in the land from the men 
we know now, and they were not good men. 

"Always they talked with a double tongue and 
knew much magic, but it was the magic of Too-muck, 
the evil spirits, and the magic of the little folks of the 
woods, the Skall-lal-a-toots, who are the makers of 
mischief and little bad deeds. 

"All the men of the land were this way except one 
who was G'klobet, the silent one, and he was hul-loi- 
mie, different, and a wise man in the magic of the Tah- 

"Now the men always counciled with the Tyee Too- 
muck, the chief of the demons, who is Ka-ke-hete, and 
who does many evil things, and they forgot the Tyee 
of all, the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis, who is the spirit 
of good deeds, and who is wise and good to men. 

"When the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis saw these 
things, he was very angry and said, <I will call Skam- 
son, the great thunderbird, and we will have rain and 





the water will cover the land and kill these men who 
are evil in their minds.' 

"So then the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis called Skam- 
son, the tliunderbird, and they held a council about 
this deed, and when the council was done Skam-son 
shook his wings and the rain came for many, many 
days, and the rivers were full of water and 
then overflowed. 

"G'klobet,. the silent one, saw these 
things and he made magic medicine to call 
the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis, and then he 
said, 'Why do the rivers rise while the rain 
still falls? Soon there will be water on all 
the land. What shall I do for meat?' 

"Then the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis said 
this talk, 'Listen, G'klobet, the silent one. 
These men are evil men and they forget the 
Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis, the great Tyee, 
and see only Ka-ke-hete, who is the chief of 
evil deeds. Because of this, the tliunderbird, 
Skam-son, shakes his wings and the rain falls. Now 
you who are G'klobet, the silent one, are not like these 
men, for you rail Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis, the chief 
of all, and for this you shall be told what to do. Go 
and get your largest canoe, and put all of your spear* 

A Salmon 



and nets in it. Put your mats and your bear robes, 
and all your fine furs in, and plenty of meat and Kam- 
as. Put your wife and all your children in, and leave 
room for a rope of cedar bark that shall reach half as 
far as a boy can walk in one sun. Then get in your 
canoe and wait.' 

" 'The great water will rise and come up over the 

i ('< \h I' / A jy>\ 7k will/ A'^mm , 


land, and then it will come up to the top of the moun- 
tains. When it comes up to the top of the highest 
mountain, then tie your rope to the highest rock and 
wait again. The waters will come up over the top of 



the highest mountain and up until you have no more 
rope, and then it will stop and go back again until 
there is no water but the rivers and the great water 
as it is now. I have spoken/ 

"And then the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis went 


"So then G'klobet, the silent one, did all these 
things that the Tah-mah-na-wis had told him and 
waited, and still Skain-son, the thunderbird, shook his 
wings for the rain to fall until it came to the top of the 
mountain and then G'klobet tied his rope. 



"When the other people saw what G'klobet, the si- 
lent one, was doing, they loaded their canoes and 
made cedar bark ropes, too, and when the water came 
to the top of the mountain they tied their ropes to the 
rock, too, and as the water came up they all let rope 


out until they had no more left, and then the canoes 
broke loose and floated away, all but G'klobet, who 
had much rope, and whose canoe did not break loose, 
but staid there and came down by the top of the moun- 


tain, and so G'klobet got back to his home again when 
the waters went away. 

"But the canoes that broke loose drifted away, aud 
came down in other places, and so all the tribes of 
men came from these, and because they were scat- 
tered, and because they saw that Ka-ke-hete, the chief 
of the demons, could not stop the water from rising, 
they became better men and talked with Sah-ha-le 
Tah-mah-na-wis, and became wise. 

"And so that was how the water left the sign on 
the mountain tops, and how the men came to be all 
over the land." 

So said the Talking Pine, the Wise One, as I sat by 
his feet and watched the smoke of the Chinoos blow 
away with the wind, there by the Lake of the 

O-NIGHT we will have the tale of 
the ('row Children, T'solo, the wan- 
derer," said the Talking Pine, when I 
had pulled the canoe up on the sand 
and sat down by his feet. 
"Then I listen, Wise 0110," I answered. 
"This is a story for children who do not mind their 
parents," said the Wise One, "and it is a warning to 
them to be good and listen to the voice of their elders, 
for who knows but thev may all be changed to crows 
at some time, if they do not? 
"The tale is like this: 

"Once there was a woman who was the wife of a 
chief, and who had two children; she loved the chil- 
dren verv much and always took them with her when 
she went awaj- from the lodge. 





"One time in the moon of the falling leaves she took 
them in the canim and went across the water to get 
some spruce boughs which the Indians use to collect 
salmon eggs on, as you know, T'solo. 

"She pulled the canoe up on the sand and told the 


children to stay close by it while she went into the 
woods and cut the spruce boughs, and then she went 
away and left them there. 

"When she came back both the children were gone, 
and had only left tracks in the sand up to the edge of 



the woods. The mother followed into the woods, and 
called them many, many times, and always they an- 
swered her with the voices of crows. 

"Now the mother was very sad when she found they 
were lost and she called her Tah-mah-na-wis to help 


her find them, but the Tah-mah-na-wis told her they 
had walked into the woods, and that the Skall-lal-a- 
toots had changed them into crows; that they must 
always stay in the woods, and could not be changed 



back into their proper form again because of the magic 
of the Skall-lal-a-toots, and so they were lost for all 

"So then the mother went back and told her hus- 
band and wept many, many days, and the chief had 

the story 
carved in the 
great Totem 
pole in the 
front of the 
lodge, and 
%< r there you will 
see it to-day, 
and it is cut in all the totem poles of the Crow totem 
as a warning to all children not to disobey their pa- 
rents, and it can be read there by all who can read 

This was the story of the Crow children, and it is 
a good story to remember, for it is not good for chil- 
dren to disobey. When the Pine had finished I said 
"Klook-wah" to him and paddled away across the Lake 
of the Mountains to wait until another time. 

The Crow. 

'■fits* , 

HEN I next saw the Wise One I had 
been on a long journey on the big 
water, and there on a lonely island 
away toward the home of Colesnass, 
the winter, I had looked upon Kit-si- 
nao, the Stone Mother, who sits in the side of the rock 
and weeps always. I did not know the story of this, 
though I knew it must be a story, for the mother would 
not be changed to stone for nothing, and have to stay 
there always, instead of going to the land of Shadows, 
and living there again, as all people do who have not 
done bad deeds. 

So then I said to the Talking Pine, "Do you know 
the story of the stone woman, Kit-si-nao, who sits 
alone on the mountain, Wise One?" 

"Yes, I know of Kit-si-nao, the one who weeps alone," 










i— i 





said the Talking Pine. "Would you like to hear the 
story, T'solo, the wanderer ?" 

"Tell the story, Wise One. I listen." 

"Then this is the tale: 

"Once, a long time ago, this woman, Kit-si-nao, lived 


there on that island and w r as happy, for she had man} 7 
sons and daughters to make her heart glad, and she 
loved them dearly. 

"This w T as good, for it is well to have many sons and 



"Kit-si-nao was of the Crow totem, and in the same 
island was another mother who was of the totem of 
Hootza, the wolf, and who was Skoolt-ka. 

"Now this woman, Skoolt-ka, the wolf, had only one 
little child, and this one was small, and not strong, 


like the children of Kit-si-nao, the crow, but Skoolt-ka 
loved it all the more because it was all she had, and 
was small and weak. 

"One day in the moon when birds nest, this child 
was playing by the lodge door when Kit-si-nao came 




by and she laughed at it, and made fun because it was 
a weak child, and did not run like her children did. 

"Then the child began to cry, and Skoolt-ka came 
and heard the words of Kit-si-nao. Then her heart 
was heavv because of this, and she sat and mourned 
a long time, so long that her Tah-mah-na-wis, Hoot-za, 
the wolf, came and said, 'Why do you weep?' 

" 'I weep because my thoughts are heavy with the 
words of Kit-si-nao,' said Skoolt-ka. 

" 'And what are the words of Kit-si-nao, give me the 
talk,' said Hoot-za, the wolf, and then Skoolt-ka gave 
him the talk of Kit-si-nao this way: 

"'Ho! Ho! You are the little one! You do not run. 
Your feet are tender, and the stones hurt you. You 
must ride on the back of your mother. You have no 
brothers and no sisters and you are always by your 
mother's door. Why do you not play with the other 
children? Because you are afraid. Ho! Ho! You are 
the little one.' 

"When Hoot-za, the wolf, heard of this talk, he was 
angry, and called all of the tribe of the wolves and they 
came and sat in a council, and Hoot-za, the chief, told 
them of the words of Kit-si-nao and asked what should 
be done. 

"The tribe of Hoot-za then thought deeply, as the 



council pipe was smoked, and then it was decided that 
Kit-si-nao must be punished for her bad deed of laugh- 
ing at a little weak child, so the wolves ran to her 
lodge and killed and ate all the children of Kit-si-nao, 
the crow mother, because of her bad deeds. 


"Then Kit-si-nao was very sad and went up on the 
mountain where you saw her and wept all the rest of 
her days for her children who were gone. 

"As she sat there, Colesick, the keeper of the dead, 
came and changed her into stone, and left her there, 


as a warning to all people not to laugh at those who 
are small and weak, and that is why you saw Kit-si- 
nao, the stone mother, sitting there weeping on the 
mountain-side by the big water. 

"Now, T'solo, the wanderer, the moon makes a short 
shadow, and soon Spe-ow will open the daylight box 
and your paddle is tired from laying in the canoe. 
Come again when Polikely, the night, is young, and 
we will have other tales that it is well to know." 

So then I left the Talking Pine, and went to my 
lodge to wait until another time, and to think about 
Kit-si-nao, the stone mother, and her deeds. 





HE Talking Pine nodded in friendly 
greeting as I got out of the canoe 
and came up to my usual place at the 
foot of the great tree: 

"Klahowya, T'solo, the wanderer, 
it is well that you came to-daj^, for to-day the pines 
will sing the rain song, and you shall sing with us, 
for it is a good song and one to know." 

"So be it, Wise One, I will learn the rain song, that 
I may know it when I am in other lands. It is a good 
song to know when the air is dry, and you can get no 
water for your throat. I will learn the rain song of 
you, Wise One." 

"Come, T'solo, the wanderer, and sit at my feet, 
where I can spread my arms over you and keep the 
rain away. 

"Now when the wind comes all the pines will sing 




the wind song and dance the wind dance before they 
sing the rain song. You know, my friend T'solo, that 
the wind must always come to help the pines sing, so 
be not impatient to hear the rain song until the wind 
can help us." 

So I sat down by the feet of the Talking Pine, and 


smoked my pipe and waited for the coming of the wind 
to see the wind dance, and hear the rain song. 

Soon the wind came slowly out of the Southwest 
and the pines began to sing and the wind sang with 
them. At first, so softly I could scarce hear it, and I 



asked the Talking Pine, "Do you sing, Wise One?" 
"Yea, listen," answered he. 

Then I heard the wind song, for it had gathered 
strength as all the pines began to sing, and I could 
hear it very plainly. Then the pines all began to dance 
and to swing their long arms in time with the song, 
and to sway and sing until they were all mad with 
the dance, and 1 thought they would fall. 

The song was wild and 
mournful, as it always is, 
and they sing it in the lan- 
guage of the pines, so one 
must know their talk to 
learn the words they sing. 
I heard them calling 
the rain to come out from 
behind the clouds and 
sing with them. Then the 

Flowers and Grasses. rain rode down with the 

wind, and some rested on the pines, but most 
of it went on down and sung with the flowers and the 
grass; for the rain, you know, is restless and cannot 
stay long in one place. 

The pines all love the rain and always sing the rain 














song when they see it coming in the clouds, so it will 
stop and sing with them. 

For a long time the pines and the rain sung to- 
gether, then the rain went away, and the wind went 
with it, and the pines were left all alone. 

The wind, you know, is never tired, and travels all 
the time, so the pines always call the wind to help 
them dance, and they always go to sleep when the 
wind goes away, and the sun wraps his warm blanket 
around them. 

"It was a good dance," said the Talking Pine, when 
they had finished and the wind had gone. 

"Come again, T'solo, the wanderer, and I will show 
you other things, and sing other songs, but now I 

Then I got in my canoe and crossed the Lake of the 
Mountains, and left the Talking Pine to sleep out his 
sleep until another time. 


1'SOLO, wanderer, it is a good night for a tale; 
Snoqualm makes a path on the water, and the 
Skal-lal-a-toots put his picture in the lake. Wah-wah- 
hoo, the frog, sings for his wife among the rushes and 
the night people call from the shadows of the pines 
with many voices. It is a night for a tale that has no 
blood in it, for the smell of blood in the mind is not a 
good smell with the air of a night such as this. It is 
a smell for daytime and stories of w r ar, not for times 
of peace and the full leaf of trees. 

"There is a story that goes with the night well, and 
it is a good tale to know, for it tells of the folly of the 
young and how it is better to listen to the w T ord of 
those who are old, and who, by their age, have learned 
much w T isdom. Wisdom is a good thing and it is only 
the old who are wise, for they are full of years. 

"To-night, then, we will hear of Wah-wah-hoo, the 




little singer who lives among the rushes over there in 
the lake." 

This, then, the great Wise One told me about the 
frog, and how he came to be a frog, and you will re- 
member that the frog is a little man, and not kill him 
when you see him, for some day he will be changed 

back to his proper shape 
again, and there will be no 
more frogs. It is this way: 

"A long, long time ago, so 
long that the oldest man can- 
not remember, there was a 
great chief, w T ho w T as the rul- 
er of everything. 

"This man w r as the king of 
all men, and all birds, and 
all animals and ruled the 
world and all in it except an- 
other chief, whose name was 
Klack-a-mass, and who w r as always at war with the 
great chief. 

"After many years these two got tired of so much 
war and held a great council talk, for they were In- 
dians, and Indians always have a council when there 
is an important question to decide. 

The Great Chief. 



"This council lasted for many days, and before it 
was done, the two chiefs had agreed not to have any 
more wars. 

"Then they smoked the great peace pipe and blew 
the smoke to the four winds, so the world would know 

r i ml; 

J urn 


they were at peace, and there would not be any more 

"Now Klack-a-mass had a daughter whose name 
was Kla-klack-hah, the woman who talks, and the 



great chief had a son whose name was Wah-wah-hoo, 

the singer. 

"When the peace pipe had been smoked at the great 

council, Klack-a-mass thought it would be well for his 

daughter to become the wife of Wah-wah-hoo, and 

thus make the two 
tribes blood relations 
and stop any fighting 
for all times. 

"The great chief 
thought that would 
be well, too, so it was 
all arranged for the 
young folks to get 
married, without say- 
ing anything to them 
about it. 

"After the council 
was over they were 
told that on a certain 

day they must get married, and thus make the tribes 

blood relations, as the Indians say. 

"Kla-klaek-hah thought it was all right and was 

willing to marry Wah-wah-hoo, but Wah-wah-hoo was 

very sad, and did not sing his songs any more, for he 



had long loved a girl of his own tribe named Hah-hah, 
the one with the bright eyes. 

"When Wah-wah-hoo told the news to Hah-hah, she 
too was sad, for she loved Wah-wah-hoo dearly, and 
they had planned to be married when the salmon ber- 
ries were ripe again, w T hich is in the middle of the 

"They talked and made all kinds of plans to escape 
the fate that would be theirs if the Tyee insisted on 
the mariage of Wah-wah-hoo and Kla-klack-hah, but 
all these plans were throw r n away again because they 
could not be carried out. 

"Closer and closer came the time when Wah-wah- 
hoo must leave Hah-hah, and go with Kla-klack-hah, 
and soon there was only one day more. 

"Then the lovers met in a dell in the forest to say 
good-bye and part forever. 

"Hah-hah came with her finest dress of tanned and 
beaded doeskin on, and wore all her ornaments of 
Hiaqua shells, and over her shoulders she threw T a 
beautiful shawl of woven cedar bark. 

"Her hair hung in thick glossy braids and her eyes 
shone bright. Her cheeks were red and soft, like the 
skin of a peach, and her smile was all sunshine to 



"For a long time they sat and talked there among 
the bright flowers that grew in the dell, and then Wah- 
w r ah-hoo said, 'Let us go away in the woods, far away 

to some other 

land and live, 
and forget 
this place we 
live in, and 
forget Kla- 
k 1 a c k-h a h. 
We will find 
another land 
and live there 
always and 
be happy.' 

"H a h-h a h 
thought for a 
time and then 
she said, 
'Y es,' an d 
Wah-wa h- 
hoo stood up 

then and took her in his arms and carried her into the 


"For many days they traveled, and at last came to a 


Carried her into the forest. 


great river and a sunny country that was close to the 
mountains. 'Uere we will stop and build a lodge/ said 
Wah-w T ah-hoo, 'and we will be safe and can live happy 

"So Wah-wah-hoo built a lodge of poles and cedar 
bark and fashioned a canoe out of a cedar log, with 
fire and the stone hatchet, T'shum-in, and built spears 
and traps to catch the wild birds and animals for food. 

"Ilah-hah w r ove nets out of the roots of the hemlock 
tree for Wah-wah-hoo to catch fish with, and she made 
mats of rushes to carpet the lodge, and blankets of the 
soft cedar bark to sleep on, and they lived in peace 
and happiness. 

"Now the great Tyee and all the rest of the tribe at 
home did not know that the young people were gone, 
so when the w T edding day for Wah-wah-hoo and Kla- 
klack-hah came around, all the people came to the 
place dressed in their brightest robes and ready for a 
great merry making. 

"Kla-klack-hah wore her wedding robes of beaded 
doeskin, trimmed with bright feathers and had her 
hair braided in long braids. 

"A great feast was made ready and all the people 
waited the coming of Wah-wah-hoo to claim his bride. 

"The time passed, and though the people waited un- 



til the sun went down, Wah-wah-hoo never came, for 

he was with Hah-hah then, hurrying away through the 

great forest. 

"When the sun went dow T n Klack-a-mass, w r ho was 

Kla-klack-hah's father, grew very angry at the w T ay his 

daughter had been treated, and sent for the Ilyas Tyee 

to find why Wah-wah-hoo did not come. 

"The Tyee came, and when Klack-a-mass told him 

the trouble, ordered runners to seek for Wah-wah-hoo 

and bring him to the 
feast at once. 

"All night the run- 
ners sought and at 
sunrise they reported 
that W r ah-wah-hoo 
w T as gone. 

"Now they looked 
was gone. Then the 

The Eagle circled high. 

for Hah-hah, and she too 

Tyee knew T they had fled and w r ould not come unless 

they were caught, and he grew very angry at his son, 

who dared to disobey the w r ord of the great chief, his 


"Then he called a council of all the animals, and 
birds, and fishes, and told them of the doings of his son. 


"To the Eagle he said, 'Fly high and watch for Wah- 
wah-hoo, and do not let him pass/ 

"To the fishes he said, 'See that they do not go by 
you on the waters.' 

"He told the chief of the wolves to smell them out. 

"The sea gull, the snake, the squirrel, and the chief 

of the mosquitos were all told to see that the lovers 

did not pass, and all the other wild things were told 

to watch that the runaways did not hide. 

"Then the council 
broke up and the ani- 
a, mals began to look 
everywhere, and it 
seemed that Wah- 
wah-hoo and Hah- 

^Lr^l^ 1 // C*** m ®fFFcr J 1 nan must soon be 
'( 'v - ' ' l " U r captured and brought 

T'set-shin, the Snake. hark 

"T'set-shin, the snake, wriggled through the grass 
and among the tangle of the berry patches to find 

"Tyee Kula-kula, the great bald eagle, circled high 
in the air, and looked down over the hills. 

"The fishes swam the waters and looked for the 
canoe of Wah-wah-hoo. 



"The squirrels watched among the trees as they ran 
up and down seeking nuts and pine cones. 

"T'kope kula-kula, the sea 
gull, watched on the sea. 

The Squirrel watched. 

"The chief of the wolves 
smelled the ground and soon 
found the lovers, but he re- 
membered that Wah-wah-hoo 
had once saved his life when 
he had been caught fast in a 
trap, so he told all the tribe 
of wolves not to say where the 
lovers were. 

"The chief of the mosquitos found them too, but 

Hah-hah had saved his life 
once and he, too, told all his 
tribe to disperse and not say 
where the vouns folks had 

"Now Ki-ki, the blue jay, 
who is chief of all the Skall- 
lal-a-toots, the fairies of the 
w r oods, you know, told all his people to hide the runa- 
ways, for he was the friend of Wah-wah-hoo, and so 


The Tribe of the Mosquitos. 


the Skall-lal-a-toots worked to hide thern, and to send 
the animals to looking in other places. 

"So the animals looked for many days and did not 
find Wah-wah-hoo and Hah-hah, and they still lived 
in the lodge by the great river. 

"But the time came when Colesnass, the winter 
wind, came down from his ice lodge far away in the 
north, and locked the rivers and the lakes with ice. 

"Then Wah-wah-hoo could catch no more fish, and 
the snow was so deep he could not hunt, and soon 


there was nothing left to eat in the lodge, and hunger 
came in the door. 

"Then Yelth, the raven, who is the keeper of the fire, 
came to the lodge and stole the fire, because Wah- 
wah-hoo could not give it enough wood to burn. 

"Colesick, w T ho is the chief of the dead, came and 
took the life of Hah-hah away, and left her dead, and 
Wah-wah-hoo was sick in his mind for her. 

"Wah-wah-hoo took the body of Hah-hah and went 
to the great rock that hangs over the pool in the river 
at the foot of the falls and sung his death chant. 



"Then he plunged off into the seething, whirling 
pool, far below, to die there, because Hah-hah was dead. 

"But Wah-wah-hoo did not die. 

"The chief of the fishes saw him when he jumped 
and he took Wah-wah-hoo, and swimming under the 
ice, brought him to the lodge of the Hyas Tyee, his 



father, and there put him on the shore, and called the 
Great Chief, who came and found his son. 

"Now the chief was still very angry at his son, so he 
said, 'You have dared to disobey the will of your fa- 
ther, who is the Hyas Tyee, chief of all things. You 



went away into the woods and left your bride before 
the wedding day. You are not fit for men and I will 
change your form. Go and be a frog, and sit in the 
mud, and sing 
there always, that 
I may hear your 
voice and know 
that you are 
afraid of inen.' 

"So it was that 
Wah-wah-hoo was 
changed by his 
father's magic in- 
to a frog, and now 
he sings at night 
to mourn for his 
dead wife. 

"Hah-h ah is 
dead, and her 
shadow looks for 
Wah-wah-hoo, but 
cannotfind him,be- 
cause he is a frog. 

"Hah-hah does not know this, and they say she trav- 
els over the swamps at night with a strange white light 

The Chief of the Fishes took him. 





in her hand, looking for Wah-wah-hoo, but he is afraid 
of the light and jumps into the water, because he is a 

"The white men call Hah-hah the <Will-o'-th'- Wisp/ 
and sometimes they try to talk with her, but then she 
only runs away over the swamp and they can never 
get near her. 

"So now you know who the frog is, and why the Will- 
o'-th'-Wisp drifts across the bogs at night, because I 
have told you the tale as it was told to me by the Talk- 
ing Pine a long time ago, away out close to where the 
sun goes down by the Lake of the Mountains. 

"You will remember now that the frog's real name is 
Wah-wah-hoo and that he sings for Hah-hah to come 
to him, when you hear his voice at night." 

HEN the leaves turned brown, the 
third moon after the ripening of 
the first salmon berry, I journeyed 
again to the Lake of the Mountains 
and smoked the Chinoos until the 
moon rose; then I went in my canoe across the 
lake, and when the moon was so high as a pine that has 
seen but one snow, I sat by the foot of the Talking- 
Pine, to see the sight of the Kloo-kwallie, and watch 
S'doaks, the son of Yelth, the raven, become a Tah- 
It was a good sight. 

A fire was started and soon made to blaze high, that 
the Ma-sah-chee Tah-mah-na-wis would have his power 
burned away. 
Paints of many colors were brought out and soon all 




the dancers were painted so bright that the Evil Eye 

was blind. Spud-tee-dock, the protector, was brought 

and stood up in the light. 

"Listen," said the Talking Pine, and I heard a low 
song that came from a long way, and 
was faint like the voice of the lake 
when the wind ripples its face, and 
the Kloo-kwallie was begun. 

It was a low-toned song that had 
not many words, yet those words 
were not in the Twana language, 
which was spoken by the tribe of 
S'doaks, and the Talking Pine told 
me he did not know the words, 
though he had heard them many 
times when he was young. 

Louder it sounded and many 
voices joined in, and then the 
Klootch-men, who do not dance, 
wrapped their bark skirts close 
around them, and sat down to beat 
drums in time with the chant that 
the men were singing. 
Like the beat of the surf on the ocean sand the song 

rose and fell, louder, and deep, and full, until a great 



noise like the sound of the streets in the town of Squin- 
tum, the white man across the mountains, came in the 
air and filled it. 

That was the song of the Kloo-kwallie, the song that 
nobody knows except the wild men who dance until 
all are hoo-ie, and their eyes stare and see nothing, 
like the crazy folks who have looked on the Evil Eye. 

With a great roar of voices and the beating of many 
drums came the dancers, all in line, and all dancing 

Each one would jump and then stand stiff like a man 

carved from wood, and then jump again. Around the 

fire they all moved until they looked like black shad- 
ows, and the light from the fire went up in the air and 

made bright the arms of the Talking Pine, and no light 

showed through the circle because so many were 


After the men had danced for some time, and the 
song was fast and the dancing wild, the Talking Pine 
whispered and told me to watch now and listen, for 
S'doaks w r ould soon be tested by the fire test. 

As I watched the dancers seemed to get pelton, 
crazy, the white men say, and two ran up to S'doaks, 
and caught him, one by the neck and one by the heels, 





and they carried him to a small fire that was built to 
burn slowly. 

Over this fire they held S'doaks, with his back close 
to it, until it was cracked and burned, and blisters 
came, and caused pain that would make any but a 
medicine man moan and cry out. 


But S'doaks had strong medicine and laughed while 
his back burned. 

Then they carried him back and set him down again 
in the circle to dance. As he danced around the medi- 
cine fire, and sung the sonc of the medicine Kloo- 



kwallie, the Klootelinian gave him sticks pointed with 
sharp bone, and with these he scourged himself until 
the blood ran down and dried black against his skin. 
"The other dancers lashed his back and arms with 
switches, and put cedar splinters that blazed like a 


torch against his skin, and S'doaks still danced, for his 
medicine was strong and his Tah-mah-na-wis made 
him so he did not feel his hurts. 

Until the moon was straight over the head of the 
Talking Pine, the dance went on, and S'doaks fell down 


i— i 






like a dead man, with his eyes open, but he could not 
see, for his medicine was gone and he was now like 
other people and like a man who is mem-a-loose, dead, 
you know. 

Then the Mid-win-nie men, who do not dance, took 
S'doaks and carried him to the medicine lodge and 

brought him back to life again, 
and in time he got w T ell. 

The Talking Pine told me that 

/this he must do as many times as 

he could, and dance the torture 

dance of the Kloo-kwallie again, 

before the moon when the birds 

sdoaks feii down. nest, and that if he did this, and 

his medicine w r as strong so he would not feel his hurts, 

then he w T ould be a new Tah-mah-na-wis man, and be 

one of the Mid-win-nie clan and be a doctor. 

This I know he did, for I saw him cure a boy who 

had looked on the Evil Eye and 
SaanXHXEHO' was already dead, but the medi- 
cine of S'doaks was strong and 
brought the boy back to his body, 
and made him alive again. 

And this was the dance of the Kloo-kwallie that was 
danced at the foot of the great Talking Pine. 

Medicine Pipe. 



When it was over I got in my canoe, and crossed 
back to my lodge, and waited for word to come again 
from my friend, the Wise One, Ka-ki-i-sil-mah, the Talk- 

ing Pine. 

HE wind was singing a w T ar song 
and the lake sang with it, while the 
white topped waves were hurrying 
against the yellow sand and the rest- 
less canoe that bowed and jumped 
over the water as it looked at the wind. 

The voice of the tribe of the pines came to my listen- 
ing ear in a low murmur from all the mountain side, 
as they sang the wind song, and the sw T ing of their 
arms made music for the wind dance. 

The great Talking Pine was dancing too, and did 
not stop his song as I came up from the sandy beach 
of the Lake of the Mountains, and sat by his feet. 

"Rest, T'solo, the wanderer, until the dance is done, 
and then we will talk," said the Wise One, and so I 
sat dowm and looked across the lake at the mountains 
and at the pines. 

The Skall-lal-a-toots are not about when the wind 




hurries by, and so there were no pictures in the lake, 
and it was only a sheet of hurrying, singing water. 

When the sun sunk into the great water, and the top 
of Takomah, the great white mountain, began to get 
like the leaf of a rose, then the wind went away, the 


dancing of the pines was done, and the water began 
to sleep. 

"Now we will hear a tale, T'solo, the wanderer, and 
it shall be the tale of a river that is by the home of 
Too-lux, the south wind, and it is a good river, for it 




is wide, and deep, and strong. It is the story of the 
river falls, Turn-chuck, this way: 

"Away back in the time of long ago, this river trav- 
eled to the council of the waters just as it does now, 
but in one place there was a great bridge of stone that 


was built bv the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-w T is, so that 
men could go over it with dry moccasins. 

"This bridge was very strong and very beautiful, and 
it was planted with trees and with grass, and there 
were flowers and birds there. 


"Now in the mountains on each side of the river, 
there lived two great Too-muck, or demons, and al- 
ways these demons made magic to kill each other, al- 
Avays, winter or summer, day or night, they made each 
his cultas medicine, 

"After many, many moons, they fought a great bat- 
tle and the air was black with their breath. 

"The ground shook with their fight, and their roars 
were like the roar of the great w r ater where the waves 
come against the sand. 

"They breathed lire and threw T great mountain rocks 
at one another until the people were frightened and 
ran away. 

"After many suns the fighting stopped and the peo- 
ple came back again, but the beautiful valley of the 
great river was all changed. 

"The grass was dead, the trees were withered, and 
the great bridge was gone. 

"In the place where the bridge had been was only 
a heap of broken and jagged rocks, and over these the 
river roared and boiled in anger as it hurried on to 
the sea. 

"No man could pass this place in his canoe, no swim- 
mer could live here for the time of three breaths 
among the whirlpools, and ever after the great river 












must fret and groan over the rocks of the broken 

"Far down under the water could be seen the trees 
that had stood on the bridge, and the Sah-ha-le Tah- 
mah-na-wis has made them to be stone trees, so that 
they will always be there, and show where the bridge 
used to stand a long time ago. 

"And this is how Tum-chuck, the falls in the great 
river, came to be there, and why they will always be 
there, for the water to sing a war song with as it goes 
to the sea. 

"I am tired with dancing and talking now, T'solo, 
and would sleep. Come again when the night is young 
and I will tell you of a great battle of the demons, that 
was fought by the banks of this same river before Ka- 
ke-hete was chief of all the demon tribe. It is a good 

"So be it, Wise One," I answered, "we will have the 
demon tale sometime, and now I go to my lodge and 
wish you a good sleep." 

Then I went with a lazy paddle across the Lake of 
the Mountains, and slept until the sun came up over 
the great mountains from the country of Spe-ow. 

HERE was a time, Siah Ahn-n-n-cut- 
ty, the time of the long ago, when 
the mountains smoked and fire was 
in the air, T'solo, the wanderer, and 
of that time there is a tale that we 
will know this night." 
Thus spoke the Talking Pine when I lit the Chinoos 
in the story pipe and the blue smoke came free. 

"My ears listen for the tale, Wise One, and the night 
comes fast, so speak, and we will know the tale," I 

"It is well; this shall be the tale of the demons this 
way, T'solo: 

"In the time when the mountains burned there were 
no people in the land except the demon people, the 
tribe of Ka-ke-hete, and they had thoughts only for 
fighting and for evil ways. 



"There was a place not far from the place where 
the river falls were made, the place where I told you 
of the stone bridge, T'solo, and this place was a great 
lake like the Lake of the Mountains, but much larger. 

"Here was the town of the demons and here they 
built their lodges along the water. 

"Then demons all had long tails, which were very 
strong, and these they used in battle and they always 
were fighting. 


"There was a big demon, who was the worst one, 
and was the Tyee. 

"This one was very strong and had much magic and 
evil thoughts, but he was wise in many ways, and many 
times he sat still and thought of other things than 
fighting while he smoked his Chinoos. 

"Now this wise demon saw all his tribe fighting, al- 
ways among themselves, and he said, This is not wise, 
for sometime they will all kill each other, and there 



will be no demons left. It is better to live in peace 
and have no more fighting.' 

"Once in twelve moons all the tribe came together 
and held a big council, and at one of these councils 
the demon Tvee made a good talk on the evil of all 




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this fighting and doing other unwise things that the} 7 

"This kind of pow-wow coming from the chief of the 
tribe was something that the demons could not under- 
stand and they thought he meant evil for them, and 













so would not be a good chief any longer, so all the 
whole tribe of demons got up to fight the chief to kill 
him for his ways and this kind of talk. 

"Now the chief knew that he could not fight the 
whole tribe, so he ran away to save himself, and all 
the demons ran after him. 


"When he came to the mountains that stood by the 
side of the lake he struck the ground a mighty blow 
with his tail, and the ground cracked open, so that 
the water came rushing in. 



"Some of the demons had already got over before 
the water came in the open place in the ground, and 
others were caught and drowned, and some could not 
get across. 

"The ones that got across still ran after the chief 
of all the demons, and so he struck the ground again, 


and again it cracked and the water rushed in from the 
lake. The first few 7 demons got over, but the water 
caught many more this time and they were swept 



"Again the chief of the demons struck the ground, 
and this time it split clear across the big mountains 
and down to the great waters, and through this crack 
the water rushed and roared, and made a big river 
that is the river of the falls as I told you, and is the 
Oregon, when the white men say the name, and the 
place of the cracks is called The Dalles/ in the talk of 
Squintum, the white man. 

"T h e river carried 
away the lake and it 
took the bodies of all the 
demons clear away to 
the big water where the 
sun falls, and now vou 
can see their bones 
sometimes when the 
wind makes the great 
water dig them out of 
the sand there by the 
edge of it. 

"Now when the demon 
His tail was broken. chief got away and sat 

down to breathe, he found that the last blow had brok- 
en his tail and that it was useless. 

"So then he leaped across the place of the cracks, 


and went home, for there were no more demons to 
fight, and so he did not care about his tail. 

"From this family of demons there came all the de- 
mons of the tribe of Ka-ke-hete and they were taught 
not to fight among their own kind, so they did not 
need a tail, and now no demon has one, and they 
only work evil deeds on others, and are ruled by Ka- 
ke-hete, who is the whistler. 

"So this is the story of the demons, and how the 
great river came, and it is a good tale, T'solo." 

When the tale was finished I took Esick, the pad- 
dle, and went to the canoe to go to my lodge. 

As the canoe left the sand the Talking Pine called 
after me and said, "Come to-morrow, T'solo, and we 
will have other tales, and shall know much wisdom. 
Klook-wah, til-la-cum." 

And so I journeyed away to my lodge by the Lake 
of the Mountains, and thought of these things, and 
how the river came. 

C» W» <»»» <-A i*> «<•» t^> «^-> C^l •»»■» 



O-NIGHT we will know of the Evil 
Eye, T'solo, the wanderer," said the 
great Talking Pine, as I came to my 
place by his feet. 
"It is well, Wise One, tell the tale 
of the Evil Eye while I listen, Ka-ki-i-sil-mah." 
So then the tale was told, and it is like this: 
"Know you, T'solo, the wanderer, that the Evil Eye 
is an evil thing, and that it works evil magic on those 
who look upon it, and he who has this has also an evil 
mind and will do you hurt. 

"Now if you make enemies with one who has this 
Evil Eye, then he can work his magic spells and do 
you great hurt if once you look on his face. This he 
may not choose to do at the time you look into his eyes, 
but may do it a long time after, and when he is not 
near you. 



"This power be has so strong, T'solo, that if you are 
four days journey by canoe away from where he is, he 
of the evil eye can yet w T ork his magic and do you harm. 

"If a man is under the spell of the evil eye, T'solo, 
then he is pelton, crazy, you know, or his feet do not 
go as he wants them to, because he cannot make them 
step like other people can because of the spell. Or he 
may walk and talk as other men, and then fall down 
upon the ground and roll there and his eyes stare and 
see nothing, and foam comes from his mouth, because 
of the evil magic. 

"Now in sickness the Ta-mah-na-wis men know what 
to do, because they can work spells and find what kind 
of animal is gnawing at the sick part and then by 
charms they can drive this animal of sickness away, 
and make the sick man well, but when a man has 
looked on the Evil Eye, T'solo, the wanderer, then 
there is nothing to do for him, because no magic, nor 
medicine, nor charm is strong enough to break the 
spell of the Evil Eye. 

"The Mid-win-nie men can do good deeds with medi- 
cine, T'solo, for they can bring back the life of a dead 
man from Stickeen, the land of shadows, if they make 
strong medicine and good charms against Cole-sick, 
the keeper of the dead, and this I know, for I have 
seen it done. 





"With the spell of the evil eye it is not so. There is 

no medicine and no charm that will break this spell, 

and so the man who has looked on the Evil Eye is no 

longer a man, but a man's body, 
which is mem-loose, dead, and is in the 
keeping of a Too-muck, a demon of 
evil who is there by the magic of the 
Evil Eye, and who is the slave of Ka- 
ke-hete, chief of all the demons, and 
must do as he says with the man's 
bod} 7 . 

"Now when a child is small, T'solo, 
the charm of the Evil Eye can not 
hurt it, so there is a way to know 

when a man has got an evil eye, and 

it is this way. 

"When a baby comes to the lodge, 

strap it on a smooth board of cedar 

wood, and then fasten a hanging strap 

to the board so the child may be hung 

up on a peg in the lodge pole and be 

out of- the reach of the Skal-lal-a-toots and always be 

easy to find. 

"Then a rattle must be hung up in front and the 

A Medicine Man. 



rattlers must be magic rattlers from the medicine 

"Now when a visitor comes in say to him, 'See, I have 

a strong baby who is always of 
a smiling face, and laughs at 
the sound of the rattle.' 

"The visitor will walk over to 
see the babv and there lianas 
the rattle and this he will 
shake to see if the baby always 
laughs at it. If the baby 
laughs then the visitor has 
good magic, but if the baby 
cries, it is because of the evil 
it looks upon in the eye of the 

stranger, and it is well to get the visitor outside of 

the lodge curtain. 

"That is the way to find the Evil Eye, 

T'solo, and it can work no spell as long 

as it is in the same lodge where the baby 

is, but be very careful that you do not 

look upon the face of such a man after 

he leaves the lodge, for then the spell 

is on and evil will come unless you always sleep with 

a Skal-lal-aye mask hung to the lodge pole over your 

Charm Mask. 

Medicine Bag. 




head, to work the evil away and keep it outside of the 
lodge curtain. 

"There is a charm to carry in your medicine bag that 
is a protection against the magic of the Evil Eye too, 
T'solo, the wanderer, but I do not know what this 
charm is, and you must give two beaverskins to the 
Mid-win-nie man to give it to you. 

"So remember, T'solo, wanderer, do not look on the 
face of a man who has the Evil Eye if you would walk 
straight and never be a pelton Siawash, a crazy man." 

This the Talking Pine said of the Evil Eye, as I sat 
there, and when he was finished I got in the canim and 
journeyed back to my lodge by the Lake of the Moun- 
tains, to think heavy thoughts about the evil ways 
of these things. 





NOE there was a great hunter who 
was Touats," said the Talking Pine, 
when I asked him for a story. 

"Now this man Touats was a great 
rogue, as well as a great hunter, and 
he did some deeds that a good hunter should not do, 
because a good hunter loves the wild things, and is of 
a broad mind, and a keen eye, and is a good man to 
the world. But this man Touats was not a good man, 
for he did not do good deeds. 
"This is why:- 

"Once he traveled a long distance to see the great 
chief of all the tribe of Hoots, the bear, and came to 
his lodge. 

"Hoots, the bear, was not at home, but his wife told 
Touats, the hunter, to come in and wait, and soon the 
bear would come back. So Touats went in and began 






The Grouse. 

to talk to the wife of Hoots, the bear, and made love 

to her, but she did not like Touats, the hunter, and 

when Hoots came back she 
told him of the way Touats 
had talked to her. 

"This made Hoots verv an- 
gry and he drove the hunter 
away. The hunter did not go 
very far, but waited in the 
woods until he saw the bear 

go on a journey and then he came back to the lodge of 

Hoots and again made love to his wife. 

"This time she was not angry with the hunter, but 

listened to his songs for a long time, 

and then Touats went away before the 

bear came back. 

"When Hoots came back he found 

his wife very much confused and afraid 

of him, so he suspected that Touats, 

the hunter, had been back, and told his 

wife that she no longer loved him, but 

that she had heard the songs of Touats. 
"This she denied, though she knew it w T as so. Hoots, 

the bear, still was not satisfied that she had told him 

the truth, and watched her go for wood and water for 




the lodge, and found that she was gone a long time, 
so he tied a magic cord to her robe, and when she did 
not come back, he followed this cord and found her 
with Touats, the hunter, at a spring. 

'Now Hoots was very angry, and to punish his wife 



for her bad ways he told her he would change her into 
a grouse, and so he did, and now she sits in the forest 
and mourns all the time because of her bad deeds. 

"Then he said to Touats, the hunter, 'You have stol- 
en mv wife and made my lodc;e fire cold. You are like 




Figures on the paws are supposed to represent the Hunter and Bear Story. 


T'set-shin, the snake, who crawls in through the back 
of the lodge and bites when your back is turned. You 
are not fit to live where there are men, and I am going 
to kill you.' 

"So then Hoots, the bear, and Touats, the hunter, 
fought a great fight for many days and at the end 
Touats was dead and Hoots was all alone." 

And this was the story of the hunter and the bear 
that was told by the Talking Pine, and many times 
since that, I, T'solo, the wanderer, have seen the pic- 
ture writing of it on many robes and have read it in 
the carving on the totem poles of the family of the 

This story is a good story to remember, for it shows 
well that those who do bad deeds are sure to be pun- 
ished and be very sad when it is too late. 

ELL me, Wise One, how did the 
blue jay, Ki-ki, come on the earth?" 
This I asked the great Wise Pine 
when I had put the coal of fire on the 
Chinoos in the pipe, and the smoke 
was coming blue. 
"The tale of Ki-ki, the blue jay, is not a tale of it- 
self, but is the tale of Doak-a-batl, the maker, and to 
know of Ki-ki, I must tell you the other tale too," an- 
swered the Pine. 

"Then tell the tale, Wise One, for my ears are open 
for the tale and I would know of these things." 

"Then if you listen, Wanderer, it is the tale of Doak- 
a-batl, this way: 

"Many, many winters ago, there were not many men 
in the world, and these men were not like the men we 




see now, for their thoughts were the thoughts of chil- 
dren and they had not many wants. 

"After a time the great Tah-mah-na-wis, who was 
Doak-a-batl, the maker, came up out of the great 
water where the Sun has his lodge, and walked on the 

"At this time all the people were living in huts and 

in holes in the ground, and in hol- 
low trees, and among rocks near a 
great river of crystal water which 
was named Sko-ko-mish. 

"Doak-a-batl, the maker, came 
by this river and saw the people 
living this way, and he said, 'Why 
do you live in holes? You should 
live in lodges/ 

"So then he built a lodge of 

poles and cedar bark and showed 

the people how to do this to make 

a house to live in, and they have 

built them that way ever since. 

"Then Doak-a-batl walked along through the woods 

until he came to a place where some Klootchmen were 

catching salmon with their hands, and he said, 'That is 

not a good way to get fish. Here, I will show you how.' 




So he cut many willow poles and with them he wove 
a willow weir out in the river in a fashion that would 
let the fish in, but would not let them out again, and 
in this way everyone could get many fish, and there 
would be no one hungry again, and so the Indian 
women remembered what Doak-a-batl had showed 
them, and they still know how to build the willow trap 
for salmon. 

"When this was done Doak-a-batl went on and soon 

saw some 
men on a ce- 
d a r log, 
along in the 
water, so he 
made them 
come to the land. Then he made a fire in the 
log, and burned it out inside, and he made T'shu- 
min, the canoe-chopper, and showed them how to cut 
away the wood, and there was a canoe made for them 
to travel in. That is how the red men found out how 
to make canoes. Then Esick, the paddle, was made 
and all was readv. 

"Then Doak-a-batl, the maker, went on and came to 
the place which is now a marsh, and which is where 

T'shumin, the Canoe Chopper. 





the river ends and the great water is, and there he 
slipped and fell. 

"Then he cursed the land and made the water come 
up and cover it, and there was a great marsh for a play- 
ground for Ena-poo, the muskrat, who sits in the sun 


like a little brown ball, and who builds a lodge of 
rushes and mud. 

"When the marsh came then Doak-a-batl put the 
rushes and the cat-tails in it, and showed the women 
how to make mats for the lodge floor out of them, and 



so it was a good deed, for it punished the land and 
made good mats for men. 

"After this was done Doak-a-batl went on and soon 
heard a great noise, and went to see what it was. There 
he found a medicine man who was dancing a foolish 
dance, and was singing <ki! ki! ki!' 

"This medicine man had much blue paint on and his 
hair was tied up so it stuck straight up on his head, 
and he was not a good sight to look at, so Doak-a-batl 
said to him, 'What are you doing V 

"The medicine 
man said, 'I am 
making medi- 

"Then Doak- 
a-batl said, 'You 
are foolish, and 
do not know the ways of medicine, you are not wise 
in the ways of Tah-mah-na-wis, and are not fit to be 
of the Mid-win-nie clan. For this I will change your 
form. Go and be a blue bird, Klale-kula-kula, and be 
known to men by your song, Ki! Ki!' 

"So by the magic of Doak-a-batl the foolish Tah- 
mah-na-wis man was changed and there was Ki-ki, the 
blue jay, and he was the first one of that kind of bird. 

Enapoo, the Muskrat. 

piuihh ft 




"That is why the blue jay has a crest, because the 
hair is his top-knot. 

"Then Doak-a-batl journeyed on to the north and 
close by the mountains that are by the great water, 
he stepped on a big flat rock, and left his tracks, three 
times, and there you will see it now, so that if men 
forget his deeds, they will always remember them 
again when they see the tracks of Doak-a-batl in the 

"From this place nobody knows where he went, and 
so Doak-a-batl is gone from the minds of men, and 
they do not know how he looks, and remember only 
his deeds." 

This was the story of Doak-a-batl as I listened to the 
tale from the Talking Pine, there by the Lake of the 
Mountains, in the land of T'set-se-la-litz, the country 
of the Sundown, a long time ago. 


HEN the world was young and dark- 
ness ruled everything, a strange 
thing happened," said the Talking 
Pine, as I came and sat down in my 
accustomed place to listen to the 
"And what was this strange thing, Wise One?" I 

"It was this," said the Talking Pine, "this, the birth 
of the Sun." 

"I would hear the tale, Wise One," I answered, and 
then he told me of this happening: 

"A long, long time ago, the world was in darkness 
and people did not have the sun and moon in the sky 
to give them light. At this time there was an aged 





woman who had a son, who was a bright, cheerful boy, 
and was much loved by his mother. 

"This boy went to see his grandmother at one time 
and stayed with her many days. When he started 
home again through the forest he was stolen by Ka- 
ke-hete, the chief of the demons, and carried away 
beyond the mountains, where, if any one tried to fol- 
low, the mountains would close together and crush 
whatever was between them. 

"While he was in the country of the demons the 
boy learned much magic and became a great Tah-mah- 
na-wis man, and then by his magic powers, found a 

wav out of the countrv and back to his own tribe 

t, 1/ 


"Now when this boy was stolen, his mother was very 
sad and mourned for many days, because she thought 
she would never see her son again, and to comfort 
her in her loneliness, Spudt-te-dock, the protector, 
gave her another son. 

"The second son also grew to be a bright boy, and 
was loved by all who knew him, and loved most by his 

"Now time went on, and after many snows had 
passed, the first son came back and found his brother 



occupying his place at home. Instead of welcoming 
his brother, the wanderer became angry at him, and 
said he would change him into the moon, and he 
should be chief of the night, while he would use his 
magic and change himself into the sun and rule the 
day. This he did, and the first day began. 

"As the older brother, who was the sun, climbed up 
the sky, it began to get very hot, for he was very an- 
gry and shone fierce and bright. 

"Soon the rivers dried up, the 
grass and trees wilted, and the 
people began to die of the heat. 
"When the sun saw these 
things, he saw that he was too 
strong, so he changed things 
about and made his younger and 
weaker brother be the sun, and 
he took his brother's place as the 
moon, and things went along all right as they do to 
this day. 

"Now vou can see the man in the moon on anv bright 
night, and if you could see hard enough, you could 
see the boy in the sun, but the sun is too bright to look 
at and the boy is not easy to find. This, then, is how 
the davs and nights started." 





So said the Talking Piue, there by the Lake of the 
Mountains, a long time ago, and he is wise and knows 
how all these things come about. 

LONG time ago the world was differ- 
ent from what it is now. There was 
no light, no sun, no moon to shine, 
and no stars to twinkle at night, no 
big pine trees, and nothing w T as as it is now. The peo- 
ple went about in darkness, and did not know what 
light was. 

"Would you like to know how it was all changed 
about so that we now have a beautiful world to live in, 
instead of a barren one that is all dark?" 

So said the Talking Pine when I got out of my canoe 
and sat at the foot of the great tree by the Lake of the 

"Yes, Wise One," I answered, "tell me how these 
things were changed, and how T it all happened, for I 



would know more of the world and its people who lived 
before I was born." 

"It is well," said the Great Tree, "now sit by my feet 
and listen, and I will tell you the tale this way: 

"When the world was all in darkness, it was ruled 
over by a strange chief, whose name was Spe-ow, the 
grandson of Ki-ki, the blue jay. 

"They say that Spe-ow was once an Arctic fox, and 
that Ki-ki, his grandmother, w T as not satisfied with 
him that way, and so changed him into Spe-ow, who 
was a man. 

"Now Spe-ow was a very strange man to look at, be- 
cause he was different from all other men. He was a 
short, fleshy man, with ears like a fox. His eyes were 
jet black, but were not like our eyes, for they were 
placed at the end of horny knobs that stuck out from 
Spe-ow's brow. A lobster has eyes like the eyes of 

"In his mouth were two great tusks like the fangs 
of a cougar. 

"His nose was sharp and pointed, and he wore a 
long white beard that reached below his waist. 

"For covering he wore a coat made of the skins of 
the Mountain Goat, and the four buttons on this coat 
were made of four live blue jays. 



"I said Spe-ow was a small man, but really he was 
a very big giant, only he was a great deal smaller than 
the other giants who lived at the same time that 
Spe-ow did. 

"Spe-ow could change himself into any shape he 
wanted to, and could change the shape of other things 
as well, lie could cut himself to pieces and put him- 
self together again, and do many 
other wonderful things. His body 
could be killed and skinned, but that 
would not kill Spe-ow, because of his 

"This, then, is the strange man 
who was the chief of the people when 
the world was all in darkness. 

"Now it happened that Spe-ow 
was walking along one day and 
came to a place where a beam of 
light came down from above, and 
there he saw a rope which hung down from some- 
where. Then the blue jay came along and said, 'Let us 
see what this is.' 

"So Ki-ki, the blue jay, flew up a little way and 
called to Spe-ow to climb up on the rope. Up climbed 
Spe-ow, and up flew the jay, until at last they came 





to a hole in the sky, and climbed out into another 
country, which was much like this world is now. 

"Spe-ow did not know what might happen to him, or 
whom he might meet in such a strange country as this 
was, and thought he had better look around a bit. 

"So he changed himself into a beaver and went into 
a swamp that was close by, to wait and see what might 

"While he was traveling through the swamp in the 

shape of a beaver poor Spe- 
ow got caught in a trap and 
w T as held fast until the moon 
chief, who is S'noqualm, came 
and found him. 

"Now S'noqualni thought 
he had caught a nice, fat bea- 
ver when he found Spe-ow, 
so he took his club and killed 
Spe-ow's beaver body, and took it to his lodge, where 
he skinned it, and stretched the hide over a bent wil- 
low stick to dry, and hung the body up in his lodge to 
wait until he should w T ant some beaver soup. 

"Though his beaver body was dead, Spe-ow w r as still 
alive, and he thought he w r ould wait and see what the 
moon chief would do next. 

Ki-ki, the Blue Jay. 



"While Spe-ow waited, the chief of the spiders came 

into the lodge of S'noqualm and by their talk Spe-ow 

found that it was he who had lowered the rope down 

from the sky to the earth, where Spe-ow found it. 

"By and by S'noqualm and the spider went out of 

the lodge and S'noqualm 
soon came back carrying 
the Sun, the stars, and the 
box that held the daylight. 
These he put on a shelf 
and again went out. Spe- 
ow thought that was a good 
chance to make his world 
bright, so he made himself 
come to life again, and 
changed himself back to 
his proper shape. Then he 
took the Sun and put it un- 

Spe-ow threw up the Sun. ( ] er hjg arm The Stars he 

put under the other arm, and took the box that was 
full of daylight in his hands. 

"Then he ran for the hole in the sky, calling to his 
grandmother, Ki-ki, the blue jay, to follow him. On the 
way he pulled up three great pine trees, which by his 
magic he made small like little bushes. With all these 



things he started down the rope with Ki-ki, but he was 
in such a great hurry that he dropped the stars and 
they scattered all about and stuck to the sky, and 
there you will see them to-night. 

"Spe-ow T reached the ground safely with the other 
things, and at once opened the 
daylight box and threw the Sun 
up. in the air, and there was the 
first day on earth. 

"Then he started the pine 
trees to growing, and soon they 
covered the whole land like they 
do in that country now. 

"When S'noqualm found that 
some one had stolen the Sun, and 
the stars, he was very angry, and 
went to the hole in the sky and 
looked down. There he saw T Spe- 
ow T at w T ork planting the trees, 

and saw the Sun high up in the air, where Spe-ow.had 
thrown it, so lie started to climb down and get them 
back again. 

"He only climbed a little way when the rope broke 
and S'noqualm fell down to the ground, and Spe-ow, 
by his magic, changed S'noqualm and the rope into 

S'noqualm fell to the Ground. 



stone, and you can see them there to-day, not far from 
the mountains, and in the great pile of rocks is a face 
that is the face of S'noqualm, the moon chief. 

"Now the moon chief, being dead, made the sky 
dark, and there was no moon any more until the great 

Tah-mah-na-wis saw that it was 
missing and changed the daughter 
of a wicked old SkalMal-a-toot into 
the moon and put her in the sky 
country. She is still there to make 
the night light. 

"When the spider chief found that 
his rope was broken and gone, he 
called his tribe of spiders together, 
and let them down to look for his 
lost rope. You can see the spider 
people even now on warm summer 
days sailing along on their little 
ropes that break loose from the sky 
and let them fall, too. 
"They can never find the chief spider's rope, because 
it was turned to stone by the magic of Spe-ow. 

"When Spe-ow got everything to suit him he threw 
the Sun up into the air every day, and it fell in the 
great water every night. Then Spe-ow would shut the 



daylight box and make night, so no one could see him, 
and go and bring the Sun back. 

"When he got back he would open the daylight box 
to make it morning again, and throw the Sun up in the 

"This he does to this day. 

"Now Spe-ow throws the Sun just the same distance 
every day, but in the winter, when the rains are heavy 
and the snow deep in the moun- 
tains, the rivers are flooded and it 
takes Spe-ow longer to travel from 
his lodge to get the Sun, so the 
nights are long in the winter. 

"People don't care for this, be- 
cause they can't work so well in 
the winter anyhow, and like to 
sleep more. 

"In the summer time the weath- The Tyee Spider * 
er is warm and Spe-ow don't have so much trouble in 
traveling, so he gets back to open the daylight box 
sooner and the days are a good deal longer, so people 
can do more work then. 

"Only once has Spe-ow ever been seen by men, and 
that was many years ago. 

"A party of Indians were camping on Ca-mah-no 



island one time, and Spe-ow came upon the bluff above 
them. He was covered with a curious light like you 
see in rotten wood sometimes, and when the Indians 
saw him he was so angry that he kicked half of the 
island over on the Indian camp and buried it, and so 
only one man escaped, and he told the story of how 
Spe-ow looked. 

"Now all Indians 
who pass by the place 
in their canoes mourn 
j ^ and cry for the dead 
ones, who lie under 
the water there. 

"This, then, is the 
story of Spe-ow, who 
lives over across the 
mountains and is keep- 
er of the Sun." 
So said the Wise One, the great Talking Pine, who 
lives by the Lake of the Mountains, in the land of 
T'set-se-la-litz, the country of the sundown. 

Spe-ow kicked the Bluff over. 


HEN I sat by the feet of the Talking 
Pine the next time, the sun was 
just falling down behind the great 
waters, and there were long shad- 
ows on the Lake of the Moun- 
tains. The water was red, like the blood that comes 
from the throat of a killed deer, and there was yellow 
on the water, too, yellow like Pil-chickamin, the gold 
that Squintum, the white man, always seeks. 

There was blue in the shadow of the pines and blue 
in the sky where the night was coming; but the moun- 
tain, Takomah, the one that feeds, was white and cold 
over the head of the pines, all white and blue, and very 
cold, save the top, and this was red, the red of the sal- 
mon berry, the red that a great fire paints on the sky 
at night. 

It was a good sight, and 1 watched it there, so high 



and grand, and all alone above all the little mountains 
that reach only to the snow. 

As I sat there my thoughts went far away to other 
lands, and other mountains, and my body sat still. 
Then the Talking Pine spoke, and then spoke again be- 
fore I heard him, and this was his speech: 

"Know you, T'solo, the wanderer, the tale of the 
great white mountain yonder, Takomah, the white one 
that feeds, the great chief of the tribe of the moun- 
tains?" His voice was far away, like a voice in the 
sleep country, where one goes at night, sometimes, 
when his body is asleep on the mats in the lodge. 

"No,Wise One," I answered, "I do not know the tale 
of the great white one yonder, but I see him, once there 
with his feet on all the tribe of the mountains and his 
head so high that the clouds can only climb half wav. 
and again I see him in the Lake of the Mountains, 
standing on his head like the pines that are painted 
there by the water Skall-lal-a-toots. Tell me this tale 
of Takomah, Wise One, while I listen and we smell 
the smell of Chinoos burning in the pipe." 

"Now-itka, oke-oke klosh; yes, that is good," said 
the Great Pine, and then he began the tale this way: 

"This tale is a tale of warning, T'solo, and it tells 
that it is better to take what we have without grum- 








bling, and so have a good heart, than to want that 
which we have not, and so not sleep well at night for 
our thoughts. 

"It is the tale of the old man who wished much Hia- 
qua, the shell money, and so was taught a great les- 
son by Tah-mah-na-wis. This is the way: 

"Very many summers ago, when my grand- 
father's grandfather was only so big as a little 
flower bush, there lived here by the foot of 
Takomah an old man, a great hunter and fish- 
erman, and one who thought the shell money, 
Hia-qua, the best of all things, and this he 

"Always the old man thought how to get 

j f more Hia-qua, and in this he was like the white 

man, Squintum, who lives across the moun- 

Hia-qua. tains. 

"Always this man talked to Tah-mah-na-wis, and al- 
ways he said the same thing, 'Where can I get Hia- 

"Tah-mah-na-wis is wise and knows it is not well 
for men to have a great deal of money; no matter if it 
is the red man and his Hia-qua, or if it is Squintum 
and his gold, it is the same, and it makes men hungry 
for evil deeds, so the great Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis 


did not give to this old man the magic that would 
bring Hia-qua, for he knew much Hia-qua would let 
Ka-ke-hete, the chief of demons, into the man's mind. 

"The old man sat and looked at Takomah as you look 
at it now, and it was white and cold, and it seemed to 
know of how this man's great greed for Hia-qua made 
him take even the lip and nose jewels of polished Hia- 
qua from starving women when meat was scarce, and 
give them tough and dry scraps of Moos-moos, the elk, 
in return. 

"Now the Tah-mah-na-wis of this old man was Moos- 
moos, the elk, and one day as he hunted on the side of 
the white one, Takomah, the old man got very tired 
and sat down to rest, and as he sat there without any 
thoughts but rest, he heard the voice of his Tah-mah- 
na-wis, Moos-moos, the elk, and it whispered magic in 
his ear. 

"This magic told him where to find much Hia-qua, 
so much that he could be the richest of all men and be 
a Hyas-Tyee, a great chief. 

"This place was on the top of Takomah, the white 
one that feeds. 

"When this man knew of the place he went back to 
his lodge and said to his wife, 'I am going on a long 
hunt,' and then he went away at the coming of night. 



"The next night he made his bed just below the snow 
of the mountain, and when the sun came up it found 
him on the top. 

"He looked down and there he saw a great valley 


in the top of Takomah and all was white with snow 
but one place in the middle. 

"This place was a deep hole in the black rocks and 
in the bottom of it was a lake of black water. 

"At one end of the lake were three large rocks, and 



they wore Tah-mah-na-wis rocks, for one was shaped 
like a salmon's head, the next was like a Kamas root, 
and the last was like the head of his own totem, Moos- 
nioos, the elk. 

"Now when he saw this, he knew where the Hia-qua 


was, so he took his pick of elkhorn and began to dig 
at the foot of the rock that was like the head of Moos- 

"When the pick made a sound against the rock the 
first time he struck with it, many otters came out of 



the black lake and sat in a circle, and lie counted as 
many as the fingers of both hands and three more. 

"The otters watched him, and at the blow of the pick 
that counted their number, all the otters struck the 
ground at the same time with their tails. 

"This the man did not pay any attention to, but 
worked on, and when the sun was just falling into the 
great water, he turned over a piece of rock and there lay 

many strings 
of Hia-qua. 
"There were 


man v 

The Elkhorn Pick. 

strings, so 
many that he 
could not reach 
the bottom 
with his arm. 
"He would be a rich man and a great Tyee, because 
no one else had so much Ilia-qua as this. 

"The otters moved back, knowing he was a child of 
the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis. 

"When he had looked long on the Hia-qua and he 
was sure he had all this for his ow T n, then he put the 
strings over his shoulder, one after another, until he 



could not walk with more, and started to climb back 
and go to his lodge. 

"Not one string did he hang on the Tah-mah-na-wis 
of the Salmon, or of the Kamas, or the Elk, not one, 
but started away. 


"The otters plunged back into the black lake again 
and began to make the water foam and roar, and this 
they did until a great storm came and Tootah, the 
Thunder, came, and Skamson, the Thunderbird. 

"Now everybody knows that Colesnass makes hard 




snows in the mountains, but this time Sah-ha-le Tah- 
mah-na-wis was angry with the man who loved Hia- 
qua, and so he helped Colesnass and Tootah to make 
a very hard storm and he called to the wind to come. 

"The wind came and danced around and around, and 
took the man and threw him over the rocks and the 
snow, but he still held to his Hia-qua and would not 
let it go. 

"Too-tah, the thunder, roared, and the wind made 
things black and made much noise, and there was an- 
other noise, that was the great anger of the Tah-mah- 
na-wis, and then came the voice of Ka-ke-hete, the 
demon, and the small voices of all his tribe. 

"All these things said Hia-qua! Hia-qua! and they 
laughed at the old man and made him afraid, but he 
still held to his treasure, and tried to go on. 

"The air grew darker and very hot, and much smoke 
came and water ran down the mountain. The wind 
danced and threw the old man about over the rocks 
and the snow banks, and the tribe of Ka-ke-hete 
laughed and yelled Hia-qua! Hia-qua! Hia-qua! 

"Then the old man lost his way and did not know 
which path to take to go to his own lodge. 

"Now this man thought to make the anger of the 


Sah-ha-le Tah-mali-na-wis to go away, so he dropped 
one string of his Ilia-qua. 

"Just think, T'solo, wanderer, so small was this old 
man's mind that he only gave one string of all his 
treasures to the great Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis! 

"The storm grew harder and the air was hot like the 
breath of the fire, and all the tribe of the demons 
laughed louder, and great noises came on the wind, 
and everything said Ilia-qua! Hia-qua! Ilia-qua! 

"String by string the old man threw away his shell 
money until the last was gone, when he lay down and 
went to the sleep country. 

"It seemed a long sleep, but in time he woke up and 
found he was on the spot where he had camped the 
night before he climbed to the top of Takomah. 

"He was very hungry and so dug some Kamas roots 
and ate them, and then he smoked and had many 

"As he sat there smoking he was huloimie, different, 
from the man who climbed the great mountain. lie 
was not cut on the rocks where the wind had thrown 
him, and he was not sore like a man who has fallen 
down many times, only stiff, and when he moved, his 
joints made a noise like a lazy paddle on the edge of 
the canoe. 



"His hair was long and white and was like the wil- 
low roots that tangle together in the wet sand. 

"Tah-mah-na-wis, thought the old man. Now he 
looked along the side of the great white mountain and 
it was changed too. New rocks were there that he had 


never seen before, and in places where many trees had 
been there was only clean, white snow now. 

"But most of all, he was much changed in his 
thoughts and was restful in his mind, for he no longer 
wanted Hia-qua, and riches had no charm for him. 


"Takomah, the great white one, looked down on him 
and was like a brother, and all the world was 

"He had never wakened on a morning that was 
calmer, and never had Takomah shone so bright and 
with so many colors. 

"He put away his pipe and traveled down the slope 
of Takomah, but all was new and strange to him, for 
all was changed. 

"When the sun painted the top of Takomah as it 
paints it now, he came to the foot of the mountain and 
there was his own lodge, and before the lodge curtain 
sat an old woman who was singing a low-toned chant, 
and when he looked close, he saw that this old woman 
was his wife. 

"She told him he had been gone many moons, she 
did not know how many, and all this time she had 
traded Kamas root and totem plants and now she had 
much Ilia-qua. 

"This old man's mind was not for Hia-qua now, and 
he was glad to be at his own lodge and at peace. 

"He gave whatever he had, Hia-qua and good words 
alike to all, and the men of all tribes came to him for 
his counsel, how to spear salmon, how to catch game, 
or how to counsel best with Tah-mah-na-wis, 



"So from this thing the old man became a wise medi- 
cine man, and was much loved by all for his wisdom 
and good deeds, because of his trip to Takomah. 

"Then there came a time when he journeyed to 
Stickeen, the land of the shadows, and his body sat by 


— i&^96 I 


the lodge fire alone, and so ended the old man who once 
loved Hia-qua more than life.^ 

"It is a good tale, Wise One," I answered, "and well 
to know, for it shows that wisdom is better than all 
the gold of Squintum, the white man, who lives across 



the mountains, and who tears up the trees and the 
grass and builds many great stone lodges all at one 
place, that he may make Mah-kook, and by this trading 
get much gold. And now I leave you, Wise One, for 
the stars say there is not much time left for sleep/' 

T was a night to sit still and smoke, 
and not to talk much. 
The Lake of the Mountains was 
talking a little talk to the sand and whispering to the 
willows that hung down and dabbled in its waters and 
over the water the faint song of the Skall-lal-a-toots 
came, for they were playing among the tall brown 
water grass that grew at the end of the lake where 
Ena-poo, the muskrat, builds his lodge. 

T'zum chuck kula-kula, the spotted water bird, dived 
after fishes, and every time he got one he came to the 
top of the water and laughed like a man who is crazy, 
pelton, you know. This bird is a Loon, in the talk of 
Squintum, the white man, who lives across the moun- 
tains, and it is a strange bird, for it can sink down in 
the water and no man can see it come up again; it is 
of the tribe of Ka-ke-hete, and is a demon. 




For a long time I sat by the foot of the Talking Pine, 
and smoked but did not speak, then the Wise One said, 
"What are your thoughts, T'solo, the wanderer, that 
you sit down like Wah-wah-hoo, the frog, and say no 

"I have thoughts of the carving that I saw once on 
a journey, Wise One, the carving of the Bear Mother." 
"Do vou know the tale, T'solo?" 
"No, Wise One, I have only looked on the carving, 

but from this 
sight I know 
the tale is a 
good tale. Do 
you know the 
story, Ka-ki-i- 
sil-mah, wisest 
of Pines?" 

The Spotted Water Bird. 

"Yes, I know the tale." 

"Then speak, Wise One, and my ears are open." 
"Tt is the story of the Bear Mother, this way, T'solo: 
"There was once a woman who was the daughter of 
a great chief, and who was very proud. 

"One time in the moon when little birds learn to fly, 
this woman went with many other women of the tribe 
of T'hlingits, to gather shot-a-lilies, the huckleberries 





that grow in the woods, and which the Indians pat 
into cakes and dry for the time of Colesnass, the 

"Hoots, the brown bear, came to gather berries, too, 
and the women all made fun of him, because of his 


heavy shape, and his slow ways, and the chiefs daugh- 
ter made more fun than any. 

"Now Hoots, the bear, got very angry and killed all 
of the women except the chiefs daughter, and her he 
carried away to his lodge and made her his wife. 


"For a long time Hoots, the bear, kept the chiefs 
daughter in his lodge, and she came to be like the 
bears, too, then a baby was born, and this baby grew 
to be the head chief of all the tribe of Hoots, the 
brown bear. 

"Then a party of the tribe of T'hlingits came through 
the woods hunting for meat, and killed Hoots, the 
bear, whose eyes were old, and they were going to 
kill his wife, but she called out to them, and they saw 
that she was not a bear, but a woman, and they took 
her back to their lodges. 

"In time she told the tale and so everyone came to 
know it, and it was cut in the totem poles, and carv- 
ings were made that are carvings of the Bear Mother 
and the baby that was half man and half bear. 

"When she came back to the tribe of the T'hlingits, 
the woman married a man of the tribe, and they took 
the bear for their totem, and so from them came all 
the people that have the bear for their totem now. 

"So this is the story of the Bear Mother that you 
saw in the carving there on your journey, T'solo, the 

"Now it is time for men to sleep, T'solo, and you 
must be in your lodge if you will see the sun come 
over the mountains in the morning." 


I— I 










So I left the Talking Pine and journeyed to my lodge 
across the Lake of the Mountains, and on the way I 
saw T'sing, the beaver, who struck the water twice 
with his tail to tell his tribe that a canoe was on the 
water, and then he sunk down to the bottom of the 
lake and ran to his lodge among the rushes and the 
white water flowers. 

(In the Chinook Language.) 

IAH Ahn-n-n-cutty, mitlite Yelth, 
yahka klale kula-kula. Okeoke sia- 
wash mamuke konaway ictas sia- 
wash ticka, pe konce iskum konaway siawash mamuke, 
yahka klatawah spose klap cahr konaway siawash mit- 
lite skookum illahee. 

Hoots tumtum klosh, pe comtox cahr hiyu skookum 
muckamuck ictas mitlite. 

Copo Yelth klatawah yahka tenas kula-kula, pe 
konce mesika klatawah siah, yahka tenas kula-kula 
nanage cahr yahka Hoots mamuke copo illahee pe 
wawa copo Yelth, 'Cahr mitlite yahka Hoots, yowah 
skookum illahee pe skookum muekamuck,' pe Yelth 
closh nanage copo okeoke illahee. Okeoke skookum 
illahee, pe yowah Yelth lolo ict siawash. Konce chaco 






copo ict illahee kwonesum kahkwah, yowak lolo ict 
siawash, pe wake lalie halo siawash mitlite copo cultas 

"Okeoke ict ictas Yelth mamuke siah ahn-n-n-cutty, 
pe yahka Mas skookum Tah-mah-na-wis kula-kula, 


Long ago lived Yelth, the black bird. 

He made (or got) all things that Indians want, and 
when he got all men made, he traveled (supposing) 
to find where all Indians could live (in a) good 

Hoots (the brown bear) knows (or has) good 
thoughts and knows where good eating is. 

With Yelth traveled the little butterfly, and when 
they (had) traveled far the butterfly saw where Hoots 
(the bear), (had) dug in the ground, and he said to 

*To read the translation verbatim as nearly as it is possible to ex- 
press it in English, leave out the words enclosed in parenthesis. 



Yelth, "Where lives Hoots, there (is) good land and 
good eating" and Yelth looked well on this land. 
That was (a) good land and there Yelth carried one 
Siawash (tribe). When (they) came to one (more) 
land like this, there he (Yelth) carried one (more) 


Siawash (tribe) and soon no Siawash-(es) lived in bad 

This (is) one thing (that) Yelth did (a) long, long 
time ago, and he (is a) good magic (working) bird. 

Don't you think so? 

l % 1W8U ^ ^ sa ^ * n m ^ lodge by the Lake of 

the Mountains the wind called to 
me as it hurried by and said this 
message from the Talking Pine: 
"Come to-night, T'solo, the wan- 
derer, when the face of Sno-qualm shows over the snow 
of the mountains, for there is to be a Klale Tah-mah- 
na-wis, and it is to be here by my feet. 

"It is a good sight and may not be seen again in the 
time of men, for Squintum, the white man, says the 
Klale Tah-mah-na-wis must stop, and Squintum is as 
the grass blades for numbers, while the red man is 
weaker each year, like a willow that can get no water." 
So said the Talking Pine by message brought by the 

I sat and thought on this while the Chinoos burned, 




and when there was no more, I called to the wind and 
gave him this message for my friend, the Wise One: 

"Say to Ka-ki-i-sil-mah, the Wise One, who stands 
alone; say that T'solo, the 
wanderer, will come to- 
night when the face of Sno- 
qualm makes light on the 
snow of the mountains, and 
we will see the sight of the 

T7-i i m i i • to. Tah-mah-na-wis Wolf Mask. 

Klale Tah-mah-na-wis. It 

is well, and now the grass dies for want of light, be- 
cause of your shadow on it." 

So then the wind went away and I waited for the 
face of Sno-qualm to come over the mountains. 

When the little night bird * 
without feathers began to fly 
after bugs and Polikely Kula- 
kula began to call for his 
wife from the limb of the 
dead pine, I got in the canoe 
and journe} T ed to where my 
friend stands 
"You are in good time," said the Wise One, "for I 
hear the sound of many paddles and soon the red men 

*The Bat. 

Tah-mah-na-wis Wolf Mask. 



will build the dancing fire, and we will see the magic 
dance, the Klale Tah-mah-na-wis, that is part a secret 
that nobody knows but the red men who are of the 
black magic totem." 

And so I sat and waited until the red men came. 

Soon many canoes were drawn up on the sand and 
many men came around in the open place by the feet 
of my friend, the Wise One. 

A fire was made and the smoke went up and hid the 
top of the Talking Pine with its blackness and the 
night was bright with firelight. Then many men sat 
where the light would shine on them and some went 
out in the darkness, and from these we soon heard a 

"That is the song of Klale Tah-mah-na-wis, the Black 
Magic," said the Wise One, "and soon we will see the 
dance, for they are ready to begin." 

Then came a strange sight. 

One man came running up by the fire, then another, 
and still others, until there were as many as all the 
fingers of both hands and that many more, and some 
of them were very strange, for they were painted with 
bright paints and had no blankets on. 

Each of these was led by another man who wore 



his robes and held a long string of skin and to this a 
painted man was tied. 

The painted men each wore 1 a mask and made strange 
noises, so I said to the Wise One, "Why is 
this, and what does it mean, Wise One?" 
"It is Klale Tah-mah-na-wis, the Black 
Magic, and each man who is painted is to 

Tah Mask na_WiS be a bir(1 or an animal in the dance, and 
all will be made members of the clan of Black Magic 
before the dance is done, and that part we cannot see, 
for it is secret and no man may look upon it if he is 
not of the Black Magic clan too, so when this time 
comes you must get in your canoe and go to jour lodge 
or the red men may kill 
you, for they are pelton 
with the dance, and do not 
know what they do." 

So said the Talking Pine. 

Now I looked close and 
listened, and so I heard the! 
voice of Ki-ki, the blue jay, 

and the Voice Of Tyee Kllla- Thunderbird-Tah-mah-na-wis Mask. 

kula, the great gray eagle, and many other voices, 

and these voices came in the chant of the painted men. 

I saw one who lumped like Wah-wahdioo, the frog, 





one who ran like T'sing, the beaver; another was like 
Itswoot, the black bear, and one like Hoots, the brown 
bear, and Hootza, the wolf, was another. 

These I could see by their acts, and 
by the mask they wore over their 
heads, and there were many more, 
like Skamson, the thimderbird, and 
Yelth, the raven, and all were 

Tah-mah-na-wis Wolf 


A.s I sat and looked at the dance I 
saw Hootza, the wolf, run at a man and snap with his 
mask, like the real wolf does, and Hoots, the one who 

was the brown bear, 
danced on his feet and 
swung his arms as the 
bear does when he 
stands on two legs. 

The one who was 
T'sing, the beaver, 
ran on his bauds and 
feet and gnawed at 

Tah-mah-na-wis Mask. Sticks with llis mask, 

so all could know he was T'sing, the beaver, and the 
one who was Skamson, the thunderbird, made his arms 
go in the air like the wings 'of Skamson and beat on a 


drum to make the song of Tootah, the thunder, and all 
knew who he was. 

All these men danced around the fire for a long time, 
the ones who wore no masks holding the strings fast- 
ened to the painted ones, who were the animals, and 


they did many things that made all who saw them 
laugh, because they did like birds and animals do, and 
there was no evil. 

When the moon, Sno-qualm, made all the shadows 
short, and the dancing fire had burned low and was 



red, then the dance stopped, and all the rest of the red 
men except the dancers got in their canoes and began 
to paddle away. 

The dancers 
sat down and be- 
gan to chant a 
low-toned song, 
and then the 
Talking Pine 
spoke, "It is time 
to go away, 
T'solo, for now 
the red men do 
secret things 

that no man may 
see and live, if he 
is not of the 
Black Magic 
clan. I cannot tell 
you of these 
things and you 
would not be 
wise to stav here, 

The Thunderbird— Tah-mah-na-wis Mask. 

so go in your canoe and do not come back until to- 
morrow night, for these men will soon be like men who 



have looked on the evil eye, and it is not good to 



So then I got in my canoe and journeyed to my lodge 
across the Lake of the Mountains, and left the red men 
there singing the chant. That night I did not go to 
the sleep country, but lay on the lodge mats until Spe- 
ow threw the Sun up and opened the daylight box, and 
all night the sound of the chant came across the lake 
on the wind, sometimes low and far off, and sometimes 
wild and fierce, and all night the top of the Wise One 
was red with the fire-light that burned for the Klale 

What deeds were done there I do not know. 

LA-HOW-YA, T'solo, the wanderer; it 
has been many days since you sat at 
my feet the last time. Where have 
you been so long?" So said the Talk- 
ing Pine, as I sat down by his feet 
and rested from my journey. 
"I have been on a journey to a strange land, and I 
have looked on strange men, Wise One, and I am 
weary. My paddle, Esick, is tired of traveling, and 
my canoe is heavy from being so long in the water. 

"I have seen many strange things, and have looked 
on strange totem poles, which I do not know the read- 
ing of. One of these I have here in the canoe, Wise 
One, and I will set it in your sight that you may read 
the tales that are cut upon it." 

Then I went to the canoe and carried the great to- 



tern pole up where the Wise One could look on the 
carving's and read the stories for me as I smoked. 
When the Wise Pine saw the carvings he said, "This 
came from some one who was a Hiada, and of the 
tribe of Hoots, the great brown bear, for he is carved 
at the top and is the totem of the owner of the house 
that this pole stood by. 

"This you may know because of the ears of the bear 
which are carved to look like the ears of Hoots, though 
the body is more of a man's body, and has hands and 
feet like a man. This is so because the Indians say 
that the great chief of the bears is a man who has the 
head of a bear, and so they carve him that way for the 
totem of the bear. 

"Now you see, the figure of Hoots, the bear, sits on 
three rings carved on the pole. This means that the 
man who owned this pole w T as rich and had given 
three feasts and dances to all the rest who were of his 
tribe, and so you see it cut there that no man may 
forget it. 

"Below the rings I see the great Gray Eagle, and this 
carving means Tah-mah-na-wis and is good medicine 
for the owner and all his household and no man knows 
what it is but the owner. 

"Then I see Yelth, the raven, and in his mouth he 



ml////// \vC%/////* 1 

sir ^&k '^BzJ' il 

* ZftO^^MooA V 









holds the moon which he stole from the eagle, his 
uncle, and he holds the dish of fresh water between 
his feet. Now this carving is the story I told you once 
here when the chinoos burned and Sno-qualm, the 
moon, climbed up the sky, and it is cut there that men 
may not forget the deeds of Yelth, who got these 
things for the use of men. 

"Under the carving of Yelth is the story of Touats, 
the hunter, and Hoots, the bear, cut in the pole, and 
by the feet of Touats are two otter heads to show who 
he is. This tale I told you, too, a long time ago, and 
now you see it carved in the totem pole of a man of 
the bear totem, because all men of this totem know 
the story and it is cut there that their children may 
read it and not forget the tale. 

"Next is the carving of T'sing, the beaver, and this 
you may know by his teeth, for they are always cut 
like the teeth of T'sing. Now this is the totem of the 
man's wife who lived in the house, and it is cut there 
that the woman may not forget her own people, who 
are of the beaver totem, and so her children may know 
to what tribe their mother belonged. 

"So now, Wanderer, you know the reading of the 
carved pole that you got in your journey, and I know 
by seeing it that you have been to the North, by the 



home of Colesnass, the winter, for this pole was carved 
bv a man who was of the tribe of the Hiadas, who live 
bv the great water, far away toward the cold conn- 
try. Where did vou get the pole, Wanderer?" 

"I was on my journey in the canoe, Wise One, and as 


T paddled along by an island in the great water that 
is far away toward the cold country of the North, I 
saw this pole standing among the pines. I went to 
the shore, for I had thoughts that there were people 
near it and I went there. 














"There was the pole and a lodge that the wind and 
the rain had torn and broken, so no one could live 
there, but there were no people. 

"Then I read the signs, and this I found: There had 
been a family living here by the pole, and they had 
built this lodge. There was a man and his wife and 
one small child who had lived in the lodge, but who 
were dead, memaloose, for I saw their bones there, 
all white in the sun, because they had journeyed to 
the land of the Stickeen many moons ago. There was 
a canoe there, all split by the sun so that small pines 
grew up through the cracks, and on the head of the 
canoe was cut the totem of Hoots, the bear, so I knew 
that it was a man of the bear clan who had built the 

"I knew that the man was rich, because many blank- 
ets and many robes were piled up in the lodge, but 
they were rotten from the wet. As I read the signs 
and walked around I found this medicine rattle hung 
up in the lodge, and it is carved with things that I do 
not know, so I will leave it in your sight that you 
may know what is cut on it and tell me when I come 

"Then I went to this totem pole, and put my hand 
against it and it fell down, for it was so old that the 



wet had rotted it at the ground and made it ready 

to break. 

"When it fell I carried it to the canoe and brought 

it here that we might read the story of the man whose 

bones were 
there in the 
sun, and who 
had been dead 
for many 
moons, for his 
bones were 
w T hite like 
the arms of a 
dead pine." 

"You are 
good in read- 
ing sign s, 
T'solo, and 
have told the 
story of the 
dead m a n. 

Your eyes are keen and you see small things. Go now 

to your lodge and come again on another night, and 

then I will read the carvings on the medicine rattle, 

for they tell strange things." 




So then I put the great totem pole back in the canoe 
and went across the Lake of the Mountains to my 
lodge, and there I set the carved pole in the ground, 
as it stood by the lodge of the dead man in the coun- 
try of the Hiadas, far to the North. 




/^npiant RATTLE, 

— . — iii i" i — -J 

HEN I went again to the Talking Pine 
he told me the story of the carving 
on the medicine rattle that I brought 
from the lodge of the dead man in 
the Hiada country, where I got the 
great totem pole that stands by my lodge. 
This the Wise One said of the rattle: 
"This rattle is of the Mid-win-nie clan, T'solo, and so 
I know that the dead man whose bones you saw was of 
the medicine clan, for no other can use a rattle like 
this, and it is for driving away Skall-lal-a-toots from 
the medicine lodge, and has many totems cut on it. 

"This one at the end is the head of Yelth, the raven, 
and you see the stick in his mouth that he used to 
carry the fire on to the lodges of men, as I told you a 
long time ago. The head of Yelth is cut on the rattle, 


i— i 


I— I 





because it is a sign of good, and is a good totem. 
"The breast of Yelth is made like the breast of the 
sparrow hawk, and the head of the sparrow hawk is 
where the tail of Yelth should be, and in the hawk's 
mouth is a carving of Wah-wah-hoo, the frog. 

"Now that is because the hawk is a medicine bird, 
and it carries Wah-wah-hoo, the frog, to the medicine 
men so they may get medicine for working evil from 
the head of the frog, because he had evil 
thoughts when he was changed from Wah- 
wah-hoo, the man, to the shape of the frog, 
and now these evil thoughts are still in the 
head of the frog, in the shape of medicine, 
% which those of the Mid-win-nie clan take for 
^ the working of evil spells. 

"On the top of the rattle I see Ka-ke-hete, 
Medicine the chief of demons, and a girl who is in the 
form of Ki-ki, the blue jay. 
"Now you see there is a frog again going from the 
mouth of Ka-ke-hete to the mouth of the girl, and this 
means that Ka-ke-hete is talking a lie to the girl and 
it is a lie about the blue jay, Ki-ki, and means evil 
for the girl to be seen listening to the talk of Ka-ke- 
hete, for he is the chief of demons. 
"The whole rattle is the carving of the raven, Yelth, 



who is the totem of all the Hiada tribes, and is for good 
medicine, and you must hang it to your lodge pole for 
a charm against evil things. 

"That is the reading of the medicine rattle, T'solo." 
So when the Wise One was finished I took the rattle 
and went to my lodge across the Lake of the Moun- 
tains, and hung it there for a charm against evil spir- 
its that travel in the night. 

■ — W » ■■ » '»■ 



HEN the canoe grated on the sand 
and I came up from the Lake of the 
Mountains the next time, the great 
Talking Pine was silent until I 

"Do you sleep, Wise One?" I asked as I took my 
accustomed seat ready to listen to the tales. 

"A-he, Snugwillimie T'solo," he answered, "I sleep 
the sleep of the old, for I am weary of the dancing and 
of play. To-night the sky is clouded and the water 
is black with shadows so that you cannot see the 
mountains that the Skall-lal-a-toots paint, for they 
paint only when there is red in the sky at evening, 
and when there is blue in the sky in day. 

"To-night is a night of rain, and soon Skamson, the 
great thunderbird, will flap his wings and then you 




will hear Tootah, the thunder, sing his war song, and 

you will see Chethl, the lightning, who is the glance 

of the thunderbird's eye. 

"Tell me of the thunderbird, Skamson, and of his 

deeds, Wise One, for this I do not know, and have 

heard only the 
story of how he 
was born there by 
the great river. 

"It is a good 
night for the tale 
of Skamson, and I 
will tell you of 
him, T'solo, the 
wanderer, if you 
listen well. It is 
like this: 

"You know the 
tale of how he 
came to be, so of 

that I will not speak, but will only tell of his deeds as 

they were told to me by S'doaks, the Twana medicine 


"Now Skamson, the thunderbird, is a man who is in 

the shape of a bird, and is the keeper of Chethl, the 

Indian Drawing of Skamson. 





lightning, and the keeper of the medicine plants, for 

he makes the rain and so makes all the medicine plants 

to grow. 
"Skamson eats nothing but whales, and these he 

does not have near his home, which is on top of a high 

where he sits 
wrapped in his 
robe of clouds. 
"Because he 
eats whales 
he must go to 

Indian Drawing of Skamson. 

the great 
water to get 
them when he 
is hungry, and 
that is why 
we have rain, 
this way: 
"When Skamson feels hunger then tie makes magic 

and many clouds come in the sky, so that Skamson 

may fly to the great water behind them and not be 

seen by men. 

"By and by the clouds cover all the sky, and when 

the thunderbird, Skamson, starts on his journey and 


flies like a bird, with his eyes looking straight ahead 
and his great wings flapping, then you hear the war 
song of Tootah, the thunder, for that is the flapping 
of the wings of Skamson. 

"Sometimes as he travels to the great *^J 
water Skamson looks down through the 

clouds and Chethl, the lightning, throws jp S §iIP ^g 
a piece of fire down to the ground to " ^^§i = 
make a hole in the clouds, so that Skam- g§fgJ§S|Klij 
son may see through, for Chethl is keep- 

Indian drawing of 

er of the eyes of Skamson, the thun- skamson. 
derbird, and lives in the head of Skamson. 

"When the thunderbird gets to the great water and 
sees a whale, then Chethl throws fire down again and 
y\ kills it for food for Skamson, and 

_~ J *v sometimes this fire hits a man by 
mistake and kills him, as it does 
.® * — ^ the whale. 

Indian drawing of ,, . «, , , , , . n , , , 

skamson. "After the whale is dead then 

Skamson takes it with his feet and flies to a high 
mountain to eat it, and then the rain does not fall any 
more, and Tootah, the thunder, is still. 

"Now there is an island in the great water far to the 
North, in the country of the Haidas, and on this island 


is a high mountain and there are many bones there, 
for that is the place where Skamson has eaten many 

"Skamson is a very large bird- 
man, for an Indian of the Twana 
tribe saw him rest on a high moun- 
tain once, and this Indian tied one 
of the feathers of Skamson's wing 
to a tree, so that when the great 
thunderbird flew away the feather Ind ian drawing of skamson. 
was pulled out, and when it laid on the ground it was 
the length of fifty canoes, and so it was very large. 
"This feather was made into medicine and is in the 
medicine bags of the tribe of theTwanas to this 
day, for it is strong medicine and works 

"Skamson, the thunderbird, is a great trav- 
eler, and so the men who live across the moun- 
tains by the land of Squintum, the white man, 
know of his deeds, too, and have him pictured 
on the robes in the medicine lodge of many 

War Club. ., n xl . * 

tribes, and these picture robes you may see 
among many tribes, even so far as five great 
lakes that stand close together in the country of Squin- 
tum, the white man, and where now no Indians live. 



because of the white man, who lives all over the land 
there by the lakes. 

"But one time long ago many tribes lived by these 
lakes before Squintum came, and these tribes all knew 
of Skamson and had his picture painted on the 


"Here the Indians cut the carving of Skamson on 
their war clubs to give them luck in hunting, because 
he is a Tah-mah-na-wis spirit, and they cut the carv- 
ing on the canoe stem that it may find good fishing 


for them, and they paint it on their lodges, and tat- 
too it on their arms, because of its magic. 

"And this, then, is the tale of 
Skamson, the great thunderbird, 
as it was told to me by S'doaks, the 
medicine man. 

"Now it is time to journey to your 

Indian dVIwing of lodge, T'solo, the wanderer, for 

Skamson has started on his way to 

the great water, and soon the rain will fall, and I 

hear the war song of Too-tah, the 


"You must have good eves to see 
to-night, T'solo, else you will miss 
your way across the Lake of the 
Mountains, for darkness hangs thick 

. , . Indian drawing of 

over the water. skamson. 

"Now Klook-wah, tillicum, and come again, for I 
must sing the rain song and dance 
the wind dance, and have no time for 

So then I left the Wise One, and 

Indian drawing of , , x , 

skamson. journeyed to my lodge across the Lake 

of the Mountains, and as the door curtain fell behind 
me, I heard the war song of Too-tah, the thunder, and 
then rain began to fall. 


^f S I sal in the door of my lodge by the 

J^Jk Lake of the Mountains, I Looked 

g^ \ toward the great Talking Pine, and 

M ™ saw the light of a fire flare up, and 

make his great limbs shine in the 

dark, so that I wondered what was happening there. 
Soon I heard voices, faint and far away, as they 
came over the lake, and these voices were the voices 
of men who sang a wild chant which I could not hear 
the words of. After I sat and listened for some time 
I got Esick, the paddle, and went down to the canoe, 
for I wondered what deeds were being done there by 
the foot of Ka-ki-i-sil-mah, the Wise One. 

Slowly I paddled along, and by and bye the canoe 
went softly against the yellow sand, and I left it there 
while I went up to see why the fire burned. 



"Kla-how-ya, T'solo, the wanderer," said the Wise 
One, "yon come at a good time, for now you will see 
the gamblers, and hear the song that gamblers sing, 
and it is a wild song to hear, for the men play a wild 
game to-night. Sit where you can see, and watch 
these red men play away their belongings, for they are 
crazy with the gambler's craze and will not stop until 
they have lost all they own." 

So then I sat still and watched the game and the 
gamblers until Sno-qualm, the moon, made short shad- 
ows, and these things I saw there: 

A fire had been built to give light for the game, and 
on each side of it were six men, who sang a wild chant 
and beat with sticks on a hollow drum log. 

One man had two short sticks that could be cov- 
ered by your hand, and all the bark had been peeled 
from one, while a ring of green had been left around 
the center of the other. These were gamble sticks, 
and the game was to guess which hand held the ring 
stick. Each side had ten short sticks of cedar, which 
lay on the ground in front of them, and besides these 
three long sticks had been cut for keeping the count. 

When they were ready to play, then one man took 
the two gamble sticks, one in each hand, and covered 
them so no one could see them, then he swung his 



hands crosswise before him, as he knelt there by the 
fire, and changed the sticks quickly from one hand to 
the other. Soon one of the other side thought he knew 
which hand held the ring stick, and he made a motion 
to that side. 

Then the gamble song stopped and the man who 
held the gamble sticks put both hands out in front, 
and opened them wide to show both sticks. 

The guesser had missed, and so he threw across to 
the other side one of the short sticks of cedar, which 

was one count, and the 
winners stuck this stick 
in the ground to show 
their count of points. 
Then the game began 
over, and the gamble 
chant was sung again 
like this: a A-ah-o-lilly-ahn-ah-ha! A-ah-o-lilly-ahn-ah- 

Then, when one thought he knew which hand held 
the ring stick again, he made a motion and the sticks 
were shown as before. This time he guessed it, and 
so the man who had held the sticks threw a count stick 
over to the one w T ho had guessed right, and then threw 
the gamble sticks across too, and his side became the 

Gamble Sticks. 



guessers until they won and got the gamble sticks 
back again. 

For a long time they did this way, and when one 
side had got ten of the count sticks stuck in the ground 
they took them all down and put a large one up, to 






mean ten counts, and when one side got three of these 
larger count sticks up they won the game and took all 
the things that the gamble was for, and left the others 
who had lost them. 

These things I saw the winners take away with 


them: Three canoes, a white man's watch that can 
tell the time, some good blankets, some pieces of 
T'kope chicka-min, that the white man, Squintum, calls 
dollars, and some robes and moccasins, ar.d these were 
lost by the other side in the play of the sing-gamble. 

"You have seen the gamblers and heard their song, 
T'solo, the wanderer, and now listen: 

"These men think to get something for nothing, and 
that no man may do honestly, and he who does this 
has in his mind Ka-ke-hete, the chief of demons, and 
he is evil, or he is pelton, not right in his thoughts, and 
so is not a good man to know. Remember, T'solo, what 
you have seen to-night, and do not sit by the sing-gam- 
ble fire and listen to the sing-gamble song, lest it be- 
witch you and you get hungry for gold, like Squin- 
tum, the white man, across the mountains, who is 
never satisfied, and always cries for more gold. 

"It is better to know of good hunting, and where 
many salmon swim, and to have wisdom in the ways 
of medicine and of magic, than it is to know too much 
of the ways of Squintum, the white man, who is like 
the gamblers you saw to-night, in his thoughts." 

The fire had burned low and red and I sat there 
looking into it, and thinking heavy thoughts on the 
words of the Talking Pine, and as I thought it came 





into my mind that the Pine was old, and had much 
wisdom, and that his words were heavy words, spoken 
with a single, straight tongue, so I said, "It is well, 
Wise One, and your words are good words to remem- 
ber, and from this time I will look on the sing-gamble 
no more lest I get hungry for the gold, like the white 
man, Squintum, and so let Ka-ke-hete come into my 
mind. And now I would sleep, and will go to my 
lodge. Klook-wah, Wise One." 

And so I got in the canoe and crossed back to my 
lodge again, and left the fire to burn out. 

OULD you know of the Tah-mah-na- 
wis of S'doaks, T'solo?" asked the 
Talking Pine, as I lighted my pipe 
and sat down at his feet to hear the 

"Tell the story, Wise One, for I would know of 
S'doaks and of the tribe of the Twanas," I answered. 
And then the Wise One, Ka-ki-i-sil-mah, the great 
Talking Pine, told me this tale: 

"When the great medicine man, S'doaks, the son of 
Yelth, the raven, w T as only a small lad, he was a good 
trailer and a good hunter, and was very wise for one 
so young. 

"His eyes were keen and his mind was clear to tell 
what he saw, and his judgment was the judgment of a 
man full grown. 




"Now in the tribe of the Twanas there was an old 
Mid-win-nie man who was very wise, and who was 
Itswoot, the bear, and whose nose was keen to smell 
things out, and this man saw S'doaks and saw his 

"So one time at the council, Itswoot, the bear, said 
to Yelth, the father of S'doaks, <Tyee Yelth, chief of the 
tribe of the Twanas, you are the favored father of a 

favored son, for S'doaks is of the Mid- 
win-nie clan, born a medicine man, 
and only needs to be taught the ways 
of doing medicine deeds to be a great 
man and chief of all the Mid-win-nie 
men. Give to me the training of the 
lad, and you shall see him the head 
man of the Twana tribe when the 
time comes for you to go to Stickeen, 
the land of the dead.' 
"These words were heavy words to Yelth, the raven, 
and he thought for many daj-s on what the bear had 
said, and then he told S'doaks that he must go and 
live with Itswoot, the bear, and get wisdom in the 
ways of medicine. 

"And this was the starting of S'doaks, the greatest 
medicine man of all the Mid-win-nie clan. 



"Now you know, T'solo, the wanderer, that every 
boy must get a totem, or spirit, to look after him 
through life and to protect him on his journeys, and 
to bring luck on his hunting and fishing trips, and this 
totem is his Tah-mah-na-wis for all time. 

"So when S'doaks was a big boy and had seen as 
many summers as all the fingers on both your hands, 
and half as many more, then Itswoot called him into 
the medicine lodge and told him what to do. 

"Said the medicine man, Ttswoot, the bear, 'S'doaks, 
listen! To-day you are a man, and must have the to- 
tem of a man. Now listen well and I, Itswoot, will 
tell you of the way. When you leave this lodge you 
must go to the sweat lodge and stay there without 
eating or drinking for one whole sun, then when Po- 
likely, the night, comes, you must leave all your robes, 
and your bows, and your knife, and with only your 
medicine belt, go into the forest and stay until your 
Tah-mah-na-wis comes to you. 

" 'You must be very careful not to eat or drink dur- 
ing this time, but fast and wait until you see some ob- 
ject that will come to you in the forest and motion for 
you to follow it. Then you must follow and not take 
your eyes from it, and it will guide you to food and 




"'This will be your Tah-mah-na-wis and will guard 
you through life and protect you. In return for this 
protection you must never kill this object, even if you 
are starving, but must always protect it in every way 
you can, for bad luck comes to those who harm their 

" 'If your totem be a beast, bird or fish, or other liv- 
ing thing, then get some part of it and put it in your 
medicine bag for a charm, but do not kill to get this 

« 'When you have got the charm you may 
then eat and drink, but let no man see you 
for one moon, but stay in the forest and talk 
with Tah-mah-na-wis and gain wisdom. 

« 'When the space of one moon has gone by 
then come here and go again to the sweat 


lodge and stay over one night, then you may 
go again among men, and in one summer more you 
shall take the Kloo-kwallie dance and be a great medi- 
cine man. But in that summer, S'doaks, look well 
that no woman touches you on the hand, and let no 
woman touch your salmon spear, nor set foot in your 
fishing canoe, for that would spoil all and make these 
things useless. And now, S'doaks, have you listened 



" 'My ears are open and I have heard the roar of the 
bear/ answered S'doaks. 

" 'Go then and I will make medicine for your good 
luck/ said Itswoot, and S'doaks went away. 

"All things went as Itswoot had directed, and 




1 1, 


S'doaks was in the forest all alone for many days and 
had not touched either food or drink, and was weak 
from long fasting when he heard a voice in a strange 
tongue, and looking up saw Ki-ki, the blue jay, sitting 
on the limb of a hemlock tree. 




"Though the language was strange, S'doaks found 
that he could understand it, as he could the Twana 
speech of his father's tribe, and then he knew that 
Ki-ki was sent for him as Tah-mah-na-wis, and he 
listened to the talk of Ki-ki. 

"Said the bird, 'Listen, S'doaks; I am Ki-ki, the 
blue jay, and I have been looking for you. 

" 'I am Tah-mah-na-wis and will show you food and 
drink. Come, and see that you do not let me get out 
of your sight. 

"So the bird flew from one tree to another, and 
S'doaks followed until he came to a great river full 
of salmon, and there the bird told him to stop and 

"After S'doaks had rested he said to Ki-ki, 'I, 
S'doaks, the son of Yelth, the raven, take you for my 
totem. I must have some part of you for my medi- 
cine bag, yet I must not kill to get it. What shall I 

" 'Wait,' said Ki-ki, 'and something will happen so 
you will have the medicine you want.' 

"So S'doaks waited, and soon the bird flew away 
without his seeing it. Then a strange thing happened. 
As S'doaks sat there, a mink came by dragging a dead 



blue jay by the neck, and when it saw S'doaks it 
let go of the bird and ran away into the deep woods. 

"S'doaks went and picked up the dead body and took 
two feathers from each wing and put them in his medi- 
cine belt to make him fleet. Then he took the eyes to 
make him see better, and the heart to make him kind 
to men, and the brain to make him wise in medicine 
and to give him the power of Tah-mah-na-wis, and the 
tongue to give him the talk of the wild things. All 
these things he put in his medicine belt and sat down 
to wait for Ki-ki to come back. 

"Soon Ki-ki came back and said, 'Now you have 

the charms and I will 
go. But I will be 
near you always, and 
when you need me 
you must call in the 
talk of the blue jay, 

"Then Ki-ki went away and S'doaks was left alone. 
Then he caught some of the salmon and ate them and 
stayed alone in the woods for the time of one moon 
and talked with Tah-mah-na-w T is and gained wisdom. 
And so that is how S'doaks, the son of Yelth, the ra- 
ven, came to have Ki-ki, the blue jay, for his totem. 

Mink Dragging a Blue Jay. 



"Now it is time for sleep," said the Pine, and 1 got 
in my canoe again, and paddled away across the Lake 
of the Mountains to wait. 


A-a-ah-na (A-a-ah-nah). — Exclamation from the T'suc-cuc-cub 
dialect meaning, as nearly as it can be expressed, "Oh yes." 

A-ah-o-lilly-ahn-ah-ah. — The chant used in the sing-gamble game. 
Repeated over and over without time or rythm. Simply these 
sounds without meaning used as a song to go with the gam- 
bling game. 

A-he (Ay-hee). — Allied tribes. An exclamation in the T'suc-cuc- 
cub dialect meaning "yes." 

Alki (Al-kee). — Chinook word meaning bye and bye, after a little 
while, in a little time to come. 

Alkicheek (Al-key-cheek). — A small sea shell not unlike a porcu- 
pine quill. Considered valuable as ornament among the In- 
dians. Procured from a small mollusk and made into ear 
pendants, necklaces, etc. Sometimes used as a trade money 
with Hiaqua in times past. 

Canim (Kay-nim). — Chinook word for "canoe." 

Cawk (Cawk). — Hiada word. Name of a mythical person described 
as the daughter of the Beaver. 

Chee-chee-watah (Chee-chee-wat-tah). — The name of the humming 
bird. Allied tribes. 

Chee-watum (Chee-wat-tum). — Indian man's name. Allied tribes. 

Chethl (Chethl). — A man's name. The lightning. Origin with some 
tribe of the Selish family. 

Chinook. — The name of a group of Indian tribes who lived along 
the Columbia River, and the sea coast to the north. Also 
the name of a jargon used as a common trade language among 
all the Indian tribes of the Northwest who occupy Washing- 


ton, Oregon, Idaho and Vancouver's Island. It was found, 
much the same as to-day, in use among these tribes by Lewis 
and Clark in 1806, and is not, as has been asserted, an inven- 
tion of the factors of the Hudson's Bay company of fur traders, 
although they have in company with other traders contributed 
to its growth by adding English and French words. It is com- 
posed as nearly as can be ascertained of the following lan- 
guages and tribal dialects: French, 90 words; English, 67 words, 
Canadian, 4 words; Unknown, 24 words; Wasco tribe, 4 words; 
Chippewa, 1 word; Nisqually, 7 words; Chinook, 221 words; 
Dialects, 32 words; Chehalis, 32 words; Calapooya, 4 words; 
Cree, 2 words; Klikatat, 2 words. The English letters F and 
R are changed to the sounds of P and L and no unnecessary 
words are used in the jargon, for the Indian favors terseness. 
Even Chinook has many dialects, and words in common use 
in one locality are unknown in some distant part of the 
country where the jargon is used. It has no grammar and a 
dictionary of it would be hard to write on account of the 
manifold uses of the same word, a motion accompanying it 
changing its meaning entirely. Yet it is easily and quickly 
learned and is in use to a great extent to-day in the North- 
west, whites as well as Indians using it as a medium of trade 
or information. While it has many shortcomings it still has. 
its advantages, and through it the "Totem Tales" have been 
translated into the English and preserved, a feat that would be 
almost impossible if one had to rely on the harsh unspeakable 
gutturals of the native languages, which sound even more con- 
fusing than Chinese and each one of which would require half 
a lifetime to master. The English language is not capable of 
a description of these Indian tongues. But we have Chinook, 
only about five or six hundred words, it is true, but it is backed 
by the expressive talking of an Indian's hands, a natural sign 
language, and lo, the tales are procured, understood and re- 
corded in all their simplicity, contradictory features, poetry, 
romance and superstition. So much for the Chinook jargon, 
a queer language without a country or ownership, a social 
tramp, an outcast among the languages of the world, just as 


its originators are outcasts, reviled, laughed at, and misunder- 
stood by the civilized tribes of men who build great stone 
lodges, all in one place, and seek always for gold, forgetting 
all, even the Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis, for this. 

Chinoos (Chin-noose). — Tobacco. From the Quinault language. 

Closh (Klo-sch). — Chinook word meaning good. Skoo-kum also 
means good and one word is used as often as the other to sig- 
nify the same thing. 

Colesick (Cole-sick). — The keeper of the dead, chief of all in the 
country of Stick-een, land of shades. Also used in Chinook 
to mean any sickness that is not a fever. Origin unknown. 

Colesnass (Colesnass). — Chinook word meaning the cold weather, 
cold wind, etc., etc. 

Cultas (Cult-tass). — Chinook word meaning bad, also worthless. 
"Cultas man," a shiftless fellow; "Cultas esick," a wornout 
paddle; "delate cultas," very bad, wicked. 

Doak-a-batl (Doak-a-battle). — Twana language. The name of a 
great mythical personage who is credited with the making of 
many new things. Really an Indian Creator. 

D'wampsh (Doo-wam-ish). — The river that empties into Elliott 
Bay at Seattle, Wash. Name the same as one of the allied 
tribes whose territory extended many miles up and down this 

Ena (E-nah). — Chinook word meaning the Beaver. 

Ena-poo (Enah-pooh). — Chinook word meaning Muskrat. 

Esick (Ee-sik). — Chinook word for paddle. 

Evil Eye. — The expression among Indians meaning about the same 
as a witch among white people. Anyone possessed of an evil 
eye is supposed to be able to cast spells for evil over any other 
person even at great distances. There are many charms and 
incantations, medicines, etc., etc., to ward off this influence 
and render it harmless, but notwithstanding all this the In- 
dian is still deathly afraid of the unseen power of this influ- 
ence, and if he once gets an idea that you are an "evil eye" no 
power on earth can get him to look at your face, and he will 
undergo almost anything rather than meet you face to face. 
Such is the hold of superstition on the savage mind. 


G'Klobet (G'Klobet).— Man's name. Allied tribes. 

Hah-hah (Ha-ha).— Mythical character. The wife of the frog. Ori- 
gin unknown. 

Hia-qua (Hi-a-quaw). — The name applied to the shells used as 
money before the whites came among the Indians. The same 
thing that wampum meant with the Eastern Indians. A word 
belonging to all of the Selish dialects. 

Hiada (Hy-a-dah). — Name of a tribe of Indians who occupy Queen 
Charlotte's Island, B. C. These are very interesting Indians 
and are the most advanced of any of the coast tribes. They 
have many characteristics in common with the Japanese, in- 
cluding the slanting eyes, yellow skin, tracing ancestry 
through the mother and great love for their children. They 
are expert workers and carvers in wood and metals and are 
the canoe and totem pole makers for all the tribes along the 
coast. Their canoes are the most seaworthy boats afloat for 
their size, as the writer can attest from experience with them, 
and the model is almost perfect. They hew these boats from a 
solid log of Alaska cedar, depending altogether on the eye for 
measurements and curves, and it is a marvel how they can 
cut a boat out of the log and have it rest on an even keel, 
properly balanced without ballast, when put in the water. It 
is beyond the ken of white men. The great Kuro Siwah, the 
Japanese current, washes against the shore of their island 
home and may account for the residence of these North 
American-Japanese people on this continent by bringing their 
ancestors here in its drift sometime in the dark ages of the 
past. Who can tell? They are canoe Indians, and a fish-eat- 
ing race, and have very many Japanese traits of character, 
and one is at once struck with the idea that they are degener- 
ated Japanese, and the theory of their origin may be correct. 

Hias (Hy-as). — Chinook word meaning a great many, much, large, 
etc.; "Hias Tyee," a great chief; "Hias hiyu ictas," a very 
great many things. Hiyu is also used alone in the same sense. 

Hoo-ie (Hoo-ee). — Quinault word, meaning crazy. 

Hoots (Hoots). — Hiada name for the brown, or cinnamon, bear. 

Hootza (Hoot-zay). — Hiada name for the wolf 


Hul-loi-mie (Hul-loy-mee). — Quinault language. Meaning differ- 

Ill-a-hee (Ill-lay-hee). — Chinook word meaning ground or land. 

Itswoot (Its-woot). — The Black Bear. Quinault language. 

Ka-ke-hete (Kay-kee-hete). — The chief of all demons, origin un- 
known, but probably from one of the numerous tribes of the 
Selish family occupying the territory along the Columbia 
River and north of it along the coast; all being canoe Indians. 

Ka-ki-i-sil-mah (Kay-kee-i-sill-mah). — Name of an Indian story 
teller of the T'sue-cuc-cub tribe. 

Kamas (Kam-mas). — Name of a plant, the roots of which are used 
for food. 

Ki-ki (Ki-ky). — The Blue Jay. Allied tribes. One of the important 
characters in the myths of the Selish tribes. A common totem 
or guardian Tah-mah-na-wis with all the coast Indians. 

Kit-si-nao (Kit-si-nay-o). — Woman's name from the Hiada lan- 

Klack-a-mass (Klack-a-mass). — From one of the Selish dialects. 
A man's name. Name of a mythic chief. 

Kla-how-ya (Klay-how-yah). — The Chinook salutation, "How are 

Kla-klack-hah (Kla-klack-hahn). — A woman's name. Selish dia- 
lect. Daughter of Klack-a-mass. 

Klale (Klail). — Chinook word meaning any dark color, but usually 
used to mean black or dark blue. 

Klook^wah (Klook-wah). — Quinault language, west coast of Wash- 
ington along the Quinault or Quiniault River. Means "good- 
bye," or farewell. 

Kloo-kwallie (Klue-kwally). — Quinault language. Name given to 
the ceremony of the initiation or graduation of a new medicine 
man. These rites consist of tortures of various kinds in which 
fire plays an important part, and last some times for several 
days and always until the candidate for medical honors is 
exhausted. These men are sometimes crippled for life by the 
horrible tortures inflicted on them by their own hands partly, 
and partly by the rest of the dancers. The idea of it all being 
to let the medicine man prove himself able to cure his own 


hurts before he undertakes to cure others. These rites are 
gone through with generally several times before the doctor 
is declared fit for his calling, and are always carried on in the 
winter season. "Of the Kloo-kwallie" is the best description 
the author is able to give the reader of the actual ceremony, 
but cold type cannot bring into the scene the frenzy, the 
wierdness, and the shivers that chase one another along your 
spine as you watch these seeming demons dance the Kloo- 
kwallie. There is a wailing rise and fall to the Indian chant, 
a subdued fierceness that cannot be described and which can 
only be heard when they do not know there are listeners 
about, and this is the song of the Kloo-kwallie, the song that 
nobody knows and the English tongue does not contain words 
that will describe it or that will describe the wildness of a 
ceremony such as the Kloo-kwallie better than it is in "Of the 

Kula-kula (Kull-lah-kull-law). — Chinook word meaning a bird. 
Used with a prefix thus, Tyee-Kula-kula the eagle, or to trans- 
late literally, "the chief bird." 

Klutch-man (Klooch-man). — Chinook word, meaning a woman; 
"Nika Klutchman," my wife; "Hiyu Klutchmen," many wo- 

Lake of the Mountains. — Lake Union, State of Washington. 

Mah-kook (Maw-cook). — Chinook word meaning "trade or barter. 
Probably the English word "market" adopted and incorpo- 
rated into the jargon from intercourse with early traders. 

Ma-sah-chee (Me-saw-che). — Chinook word meaning the opposite 
of good. Anything that is worse than just plain "bad." 

Medicine bag. — A little bag made of skin usually and containing 
charms, etc., to ward off evil, sickness, and to bring good luck. 
The contents are known to the owner, but to no one else, and 
their potency is immediately lost when any outsider knows 
what they are composed of. Sometimes the medicine bag is 
made as a belt and highly ornamented with bead and quill 

Mem-a-loose (Mem-a-luce). — Chinook word meaning dead. "Cha- 
co mem-a-loose," to die. 


Mid-win-nie (Mid-winny). — The society of medicine men. The ones 
who practice medicine, magic, religious rites and cast spells. 
Origin unknown. Common to a great many tribes, but prob- 
ably of Dakotah origin. 

Moos-moos (Moos-moos). — Chinook word meaning elk. 

Mowitch (Mow-witch). — Chinook word meaning deer. 

Now-itka (Nowitka). — Chinook word meaning yes. 

Oke-oke (O-koke). — Chinook word meaning either that or this, ac- 
cording to the way it is used and the motion that accom- 
panies it. 

Olo (Olo). — Chinook jargon, meaning hungry. 

Opitsah (O-pit-sah). — Chinook word, name of a knife. 

Pelton (Pell-ton). — Chinook word meaning crazy. 

Pil-Chicamun. — Chinook word for gold. Literally, red metal. 

Polikely (Po-like-lie). — Chinook word meaning darkness, night. 
"Polikely kula-kula," the owl, the night bird. 

Puss-puss (Puss-puss). — Chinook word for the cougar or mountain 

Quaw-te-aht (Quaw-tee-awht). — Name of a mythic character. Ori- 
gin unknown other than it belongs to some dialect of the Selish 

Quoots-hoi (Kwoots-hoy). — Name of a mythical witch. Used only 
in the Thunderbird stories. Selish dialect, but tribe not 
known. Probably originated with one of the Columbia River 
tribes who were called Chinook Indians. 

Sah-ha-le (Sah-hay-le). — Chinook word meaning up above. Used 
in connection with Tah-mah-na-wis to mean the Deity. 

S'amumpsh (S'mum-psh). — Name of a river in the State of Wash- 
ington called Sam-mam-ish, by the whites. From the Allied 

S'doaks (S'ss-doaks). — Hiada language. A man's name. 

Shot-o-lil-ie (Shot-o-lily).— Chinook word. Name of the Huckle- 

Siah (Si-ah).— Chinook word. Far away, a long distance. "Siah 
Ahncutty," a long time ago; "Siah yowah," away over there. 

Siah-ahncutty (Siah-ahn-cutty).— Chinook jargon meaning in the 
time past. Length of time is indicated by drawing out the 


words slightly for a week or so ago, longer for two or three 
months, and very long for the time before men can remember. 

Siawash (Si-wash).— A name among the whites applied to any In- 
dian of the west coast irrespective of his tribe. Generally 
meaning the canoe Indians of Puget Sound and the islands of 
the Northwest. 

Skall-lal-aye (Skall-lal-a). — Allied tribes. A name for any charm 
against the Skall-lal-a-toots or fairy folk. 
M-- Skallalatoot (Skal-lal-a-toot). — A fairy. The unseen and unknown 
causes that produce strange noises in the woods. Night voices 
of unknown origin. The makers of mischief. Originated with 
one of the six tribes who combined under Chief Sealth, or 
Seattle as the whites pronounce it. These allied tribes were 
the Moxliepush, D'wampsch, Black River, Shillshole, Lake 
and T'suc-cuc-cub, the latter being the tribe to which Sealth 
properly belonged. Many words contained in "Totem Tales" 
are from this group of dialects and are spoken of as the Allied 
Tribes when mentioned. 

Skamson (Skam-sun). — Hiada language. Name of the Thunder- 
bird. This mythical character is also called Ka-ka-itch, Tu- 
tutsh, T'hlu-Kluts and Hah-ness, each being a different tribal 
name for the same personage. 

Sko-ko-mish (Sko-ko-msh). — Name of a river emptying into Hood's 
Canal, Wash.; also name of the Twana tribe of Indians living 
on its banks and who belong to the Selish or flathead group or 
family of North American aborigines. 

Skoolt-ka (Skule-t-kah). — Woman's name from the Hiada lan- 

Snoqualm (Snow-quallm). — The moon. Originated probably with 
the Snoqualmie tribe. 

Snugwillimie (Snug-will-li-mie). — Quinault language. Used to 
mean friend, but used by an Indian only to mean an Indian 
friend, a white friend being either "Tillacum" or "Squintum." 

Spe-ow (Spee-ow). — A mythical personage whose deeds as told in 
the legends make him occupy the position of a Creator. Leg- 
end of Speow and the Spider is very common among the coast 
tribes of the Northwest, and can be obtained with slight varia- 
tions from a dozen or more different sources. 



Spud-te-dock (Spudt-tea-dock).— Twana tribe. A protecting spirit 
who was sometimes represented or personified by a wooden 
image that was set up in the ground by the medicine man and 
by him appealed to for wisdom in deep questions. This is the 
nearest approach to an idol that can be traced among the 
coast tribes, and while the figure was consulted for knowledge 
it can hardly be said that this was done in a religious way, 
but more after the form of voo-doo-ism, the conjure work that 
is found among all savage tribes. This spirit was merely 
made in effigy and this figure consulted and argued with to 
give the medicine man knowledge of secrets that he was in- 
terested in. 

Squintum (Squind-tum). — A white man. Word of unknown ori- 
gin. Probably from the Allied Tribes, though it may be of 
Quinault origin. 

Stickeen (Stick-keen). — The country where the dead people live 
again. Origin unknown. 

Sweat Lodge. — A lodge built for the purpose of taking a sweat or 
a steam bath. This is done by heating stones and droppi 3 
them into a wooden trough containing water until steam is 
generated and the one who is taking the bath perspires freely. 
It is the Indian turkish bath and is used a great deal in sick- 
ness among them. 

Tah-mah-na-wis (Taw-maw-na-wiss). — A name applied to anything 
the Indians cannot understand. A protecting or guardis.n 
spirit if used another way. Any thing of a magic nature. 
Name of the Deity. A Tah-mah-na-wis man is a doctor, priest, 
conjurer, and fortune-teller, a dealer in magic and a maker 
and destroyer of charms for good and evil, all in the same 
personage. "Sah-ha-le Tah-mah-na-wis," the Great Spirit; 
"Yah-ka Tah-mah-na-wis," a personal guardian spirit; 
"Tah-mah-na-wis ictas," objects of magic or containing 
magic properties. "Klale Tah-mah-na-wis," the name of the 
secret society of Black Magic. Anything too deep for the grasp 
of the Indian mind is charged to "Tah-mah-na-wis," and ends 
there, no attempt being made to find out "why." 


T'hlingits (Thling-gits).— Name of a tribe of Indians north of Puget 
Sound. Territory they occupy runs into the Panhandle of 

Tillacum (Till-lay-cum).— Chinook word for friend. 

Tipsu koshoo (Tip-soo ko-sho).— Chinook word meaning water pig, 
applied to the hair or harbor seal. 

T'komah (Ti-ko-ma).— A name from the allied tribes applied to 
any high snow covered peak. Adopted by the whites and used 
to mean Mount Ranier, called by some people erroneously as 
Mt. Tacoma. The Indian name for this mountain means "the 
one that feeds." 

T'kope-mowitch (To-kope-mow-witch). — The Chinook word mean- 
ing white goat or white deer. 

T'kope (Ti-kope). — White. Chinook word for the color. "T'kope 
kula-kula," the sea gull. 

Too-lux (Tu-lux). — Name of the south wind. Tribal origin not 
known. Word belongs to some one of the Selish dialects. 

Too-muck (Too-muck). — A name applied to all the demons of In- 
dian mythology. Chinook word. 

Too-tah (Too-taw). — Name of the thunder. Origin unknown. 

Totem (Totem). — A charm against evil. — A protector. This word 
is found in universal use among all Indian tribes of Central 
North America and means the same with all. Origin unknown. 

Totem Pole. — A carved pole of yellow or Alaska cedar, usually. In 
no sense an idol. The figures on these poles are symbolic and 
rarely intended as a portrait of the object represented, though 
they always have some feature that makes their identity plain, 
as the ears in the figure for the bear, the teeth in the beaver, 
the tail in the shark and the whale, the teeth and nose in the 
wolf, etc. The carvings are family history, tribal history, 
legendary lore and records of various happenings of a far- 
reaching character. The carving is done by a few carvers in 
each tribe, the Hiadas being the most expert and the most 
lavish in designing. Some of these poles are very large and 
cost a great deal of time and patience in the manufacture, and 
are priceless in the estimation of their owners. There are still 
many things connected with them that are wholly unknown 


to the whites and which will likely always remain more or 
less of a mystery. Close connection and resemblance has 
been found to exist among the carvings of the totem pole, the 
monoliths of Yucatan, and the Egyptian stone records, and 
some points have even been found in common with the idols 
of the Sandwich Islands and the fetishes among the savages of 
Africa. All of these things belong more or less to the dark 
ages before man kept a record of events, and will go down the 
path of time as profound a mystery as when they first dawned 
on the horizon of thought and came within the realm of the 
scholar. They will always be silent records of a vanished 

Touats (Tow-at-ss). — Hiada language. A man's name. The name 
of the mythical hunter who figures in the story of the "Hunter 
and the Bear." 

T'schumin (Ti-schum-min). — The instrument used in making ca- 
noes. Name from the allied tribes. 

T'set-la-lits (Tee-set-see-lay-litz). — From the T'suc-cuc-cub dia- 
lect and first used to designate the first settlement on the 
shore of Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Wash., the site of the pres- 
ent city of Seattle. 

T'set-shin (Ti-set-shin). — The snake. Origin unknown, but prob- 
ably from the allied tribes. 

T'sing (T'ss-sing). — Hiada word. The name of the beaver. 

T'solo (T'ss-solo). — From the allied tribes, meaning lost one, wild, 

Tumchuck (Tum-chuck). — Chinook word, meaning falling water. 
Applied to any water fall or white rapid in a river. Also name 
of a swift mountain stream in State of Washington. 

Twana (T-wan-nah). — Name of a tribe of the Selish family of In- 
dians living on the Sko-ko-mish River. Also called Sko-ko- 
mish Indians. 

Tyee (Tie-ee).— From the Chinook jargon. A chief or head man of 
a tribe or family. 

T'zum (T'ss-zum). — Chinook word meaning any object that is 
painted, printed, written or otherwise marked with color, thus 
"T'zum-pish," a spotted fish, the trout; "T'zum-papah," a 
printed or written paper; "T'ziim-sail," a painted; picture. 


Wah-wah-hoo (Wah-wah-who). — The frog. Origin unknown, but 
probably from the Snoqualmie tribe. 

Wee-nat-chee (We-nateh-chee). — The rainbow. This name origi- 
nates east of the Cascade range of mountains, bat with what 
particular tribe is unknown. Probably with the Yahkimahs. 

* Wee-wye-kee (Wee-why-key). — The Indian name of Princess An- 
geline, one of the daughters of Chief Sealth and a member of 
the T'suc-cuc-cub tribe who lived around Elliott Bay, Wash. 

Yelth (Yelth). — From the Hiada tribe who live on Queen Char- 
lotte's Island, B. C. The name for the raven, who is one of 
the mythical characters with this tribe and considered the 
benefactor of man. 

NOTE. — Where the letter T' is followed by the apostrophe, 
as above, the sound of the T is "tiss," as nearly as it can be 
written, thus making a syllable of itself, as Tiss-so-low, for T'solo. 
There are many sounds in the Indian tongues that English has 
no equivalent for, so they must be represented by the English 
sound or letter coming nearest. 

* This character has died since the writing of the above, and 
leaves many mourners among the early settlers of Puget Sound. 
She was a noted character and the mascot of the city of Seattle, 
because in early days she was instrumental in saving the city 
from Indian massacre. See History of the Staie of Washington. 

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